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  • We consider random dynamical systems on manifolds modeled by a skew product which have certain geometric properties and whose measures satisfy quenched decay of correlations at a sufficient rate. We prove that the limiting distribution for the hitting and return times to geometric balls are both exponential for almost every realisation. We then apply this result to random $C^2$ maps of the interval and random parabolic maps on the unit interval.

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  • We show that points in specific degree 2 hypersurfaces in the Grassmannian $Gr(3, n)$ correspond to generic arrangements of $n$ hyperplanes in $\mathbb{C}^3$ with associated discriminantal arrangement having intersections of multiplicity three in codimension two.

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  • We show that the following problems are NP-complete. 1. Can the vertex set of a graph be partitioned into two sets such that each set induces a perfect graph? 2. Is the difference between the chromatic number and clique number at most $1$ for every induced subgraph of a graph? 3. Can the vertex set of every induced subgraph of a graph be partitioned into two sets such that the first set induces a perfect graph, and the clique number of the graph induced by the second set is smaller than that of the original induced subgraph? 4. Does a graph contain a stable set whose deletion results in a perfect graph? The proofs of the NP-completeness of the four problems follow the same pattern: Showing that all the four problems are NP-complete when restricted to triangle-free graphs by using results of Maffray and Preissmann on $3$-colorability and $4$-colorability of triangle-free graphs

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  • In this paper, based on the block operator technique and operator spectral theory, the general explicit expressions for intertwining operators and direct rotations of two orthogonal projections have been established. As a consequence, it is an improvement of Kato's result (Perturbation Theory of Linear operators, Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg, 1996); J. Avron, R. Seiler and B. Simon's Theorem 2.3 (The index of a pair of projections, J. Funct. Anal. 120(1994) 220-237) and C. Davis, W.M. Kahan, (The rotation of eigenvectors by a perturbation, III. SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 7(1970) 1-46).

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  • Let $X = \{1,-1\}^\mathbb{N}$ be the symbolic space endowed with the product order. A Borel probability measure $\mu$ over $X$ is said to satisfy the FKG inequality if for any pair of continuous increasing functions $f$ and $g$ we have $\mu(fg)-\mu(f)\mu(g)\geq 0$. In the first part of the paper we prove the validity of the FKG inequality on Thermodynamic Formalism setting for a class of eigenmeasures of the dual of the Ruelle operator, including several examples of interest in Statistical Mechanics. In addition to deducing this inequality in cases not covered by classical results about attractive specifications our proof has advantage of to be easily adapted for suitable subshifts. We review (and provide proofs in our setting) some classical results about the long-range Ising model on the lattice $\mathbb{N}$ and use them to deduce some monotonicity properties of the associated Ruelle operator and their relations with phase transitions. As is widely known, for some continuous potentia

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  • In this paper, we define a general class of abstract aerial robotic systems named Laterally Bounded Force (LBF) vehicles, in which most of the control authority is expressed along a principal thrust direction, while in the lateral directions a (smaller and possibly null) force may be exploited to achieve full-pose tracking. This class approximates well platforms endowed with non-coplanar/non-collinear rotors that can use the tilted propellers to slightly change the orientation of the total thrust w.r.t. the body frame. For this broad class of systems, we introduce a new geometric control strategy in SE(3) to achieve, whenever made possible by the force constraints, the independent tracking of position-plus-orientation trajectories. The exponential tracking of a feasible full-pose reference trajectory is proven using a Lyapunov technique in SE(3). The method can deal seamlessly with both under- and fully-actuated LBF platforms. The controller guarantees the tracking of at least the posi

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  • We unveil the existence of a precise mapping between the ground state of non-interacting free fermions in a box with classical (absorbing, reflecting, and periodic) boundary conditions and the eigenvalue statistics of the classical compact groups. The associated determinantal point processes can be extended in two natural directions: i) we consider the full family of admissible quantum boundary conditions (i.e., self-adjoint extensions) for the Laplacian on a bounded interval, and the corresponding projection correlation kernels; ii) we construct the grand canonical extensions at finite temperature of the projection kernels, interpolating from Poisson to random matrix eigenvalue statistics. The scaling limits in the bulk and at the edges are studied in a unified framework, and the question of universality is addressed. Whether the finite temperature determinantal processes correspond to the eigenvalue statistics of some matrix models is, a priori, not obvious. We complete the picture b

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  • We study the correlation functions of the Pfaffian Schur process using Macdonald difference operators. Sasamoto and Imamura \cite{SmIm04} introduced the Pfaffian Schur process for studying the polynuclear growth processes in half-space. Later, Borodin and Rains \cite{BR05} derived the correlation functions of the Pfaffian Schur process using a Pfaffian analogue of the Eynard-Mehta theorem. We present here an alternative derivation using Macdonald difference operators. One can find similar exposition for the Schur process in \cite{A14}.

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  • In this paper, we elucidate the key role played by the cosymplectic geometry in the theory of time dependent Hamiltonian systems. In particular, we generalize the cosymplectic structures to time-dependent Nambu-Poisson Hamiltonian systems and corresponding Jacobi's last multiplier for 3D systems. We illustrate our constructions with various examples.

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  • We consider the random walk on the hypercube which moves by picking an ordered pair $(i,j)$ of distinct coordinates uniformly at random and adding the bit at location $i$ to the bit at location $j$, modulo $2$. We show that this Markov chain has cutoff at time $\frac{3}{2}n\log n$ with window of size $n$, solving a question posed by Chung and Graham (1997).

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  • In \cite{JS} Jensen and Su constructed 0-Schur algebras on double flag varieties. The construction leads to a presentation of 0-Schur algebras using quivers with relations and the quiver approach naturally gives rise to a new class of algebras. That is, the path algebras defined on the quivers of 0-Schur algebras with relations modified from the defining relations of 0-Schur algebras by a tuple of parameters $\ut$. In particular, when all the entries of $\ut$ are 1, we have 0-Schur algerbas. When all the entries of $\ut$ are zero, we obtain a class of degenerate 0-Schur algebras. We prove that the degenerate algebras are associated graded algebras and quotients of 0-Schur algebras. Moreover, we give a geometric interpretation of the degenerate algebras using double flag varieties, in the same spirit as \cite{JS}, and show how the centralizer algebras are related to nil-Hecke algebras and nil-Temperly-Lieb algebras

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  • We study the 3-D compressible barotropic radiation fluid dynamics system describing the motion of the compressible rotating viscous fluid with gravitation and radiation confined to a straight layer. We show that weak solutions in the 3-D domain converge to the strong solution of the rotating 2-D Navier-Stokes-Poisson system with radiation for all times less than the maximal life time of the strong solution of the 2-D system when the Froude number is small or to the strong solution of the rotating pure 2-D Navier- Stokes system with radiation.

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  • This paper is devoted to study the sharp Moser-Trudinger type inequalities in whole space $\mathbb R^N$, $N \geq 2$ in more general case. We first compute explicitly the \emph{normalized vanishing limit} and the \emph{normalized concentrating limit} of the Moser-Trudinger type functional associated with our inequalities over all the \emph{normalized vanishing sequences} and the \emph{normalized concentrating sequences}, respectively. Exploiting these limits together with the concentration-compactness principle of Lions type, we give a proof of the exitence of maximizers for these Moser-Trudinger type inequalities. Our approach gives an alternative proof of the existence of maximizers for the Moser-Trudinger inequality and singular Moser-Trudinger inequality in whole space $\mathbb R^N$ due to Li and Ruf \cite{LiRuf2008} and Li and Yang \cite{LiYang}.

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  • In the paper, we present a high order fast algorithm with almost optimum memory for the Caputo fractional derivative, which can be expressed as a convolution of $u'(t)$ with the kernel $(t_n-t)^{-\alpha}$. In the fast algorithm, the interval $[0,t_{n-1}]$ is split into nonuniform subintervals. The number of the subintervals is in the order of $\log n$ at the $n$-th time step. The fractional kernel function is approximated by a polynomial function of $K$-th degree with a uniform absolute error on each subinterval. We save $K+1$ integrals on each subinterval, which can be written as a convolution of $u'(t)$ with a polynomial base function. As compared with the direct method, the proposed fast algorithm reduces the storage requirement and computational cost from $O(n)$ to $O((K+1)\log n)$ at the $n$-th time step. We prove that the convergence rate of the fast algorithm is the same as the direct method even a high order direct method is considered. The convergence rate and efficiency of th

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  • We consider a network design problem with random arc capacities and give a formulation with a probabilistic capacity constraint on each cut of the network. To handle the exponentially-many probabilistic constraints a separation procedure that solves a nonlinear minimum cut problem is introduced. For the case with independent arc capacities, we exploit the supermodularity of the set function defining the constraints and generate cutting planes based on the supermodular covering knapsack polytope. For the general correlated case, we give a reformulation of the constraints that allows to uncover and utilize the submodularity of a related function. The computational results indicate that exploiting the underlying submodularity and supermodularity arising with the probabilistic constraints provides significant advantages over the classical approaches.

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  • We consider two manifestations of non-positive curvature: acylindrical actions (on hyperbolic spaces) and quasigeodesic stability. We study these properties for the class of hierarchically hyperbolic groups, which is a general framework for simultaneously studying many important families of groups, including mapping class groups, right-angled Coxeter groups, most 3-manifold groups, right-angled Artin groups, and many others. A group that admits an acylindrical action on a hyperbolic space may admit many such actions on different hyperbolic spaces. It is natural to try to develop an understanding of all such actions and to search for a "best" one. The set of all cobounded acylindrical actions on hyperbolic spaces admits a natural poset structure, and in this paper we prove that all hierarchically hyperbolic groups admit a unique action which is the largest in this poset. The action we construct is also universal in the sense that every element which acts loxodromically in some acylindri

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  • Certain systems of inviscid fluid dynamics have the property that for solutions with just a modest amount of regularity in Eulerian variables, the corresponding Lagrangian trajectories are analytic in time. We elucidate the mechanisms in fluid dynamics systems that give rise to this automatic Lagrangian analyticity, as well as mechanisms in some particular fluids systems which prevent it from occurring. We give a conceptual argument for a general fluids model which shows that the fulfillment of a basic set of criteria results in the analyticity of the trajectory maps in time. We then apply this to the incompressible Euler equations, obtaining analyticity for vortex patch solutions in particular. We also use the method to prove the Lagrangian trajectories are analytic for solutions to the pressureless Euler-Poisson equations, for initial data with moderate regularity. We then examine the compressible Euler equations, and find that the finite speed of propagation in the system is incompa

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  • A rectangular parallelepiped is called a cuboid (standing box). It is called perfect if its edges, face diagonals and body diagonal all have integer length. Euler gave an example where only the body diagonal failed to be an integer (Euler brick). Are there perfect cuboids? We prove that there is no perfect cuboid.

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  • At first glance the notion of an algebra with a generalized $H$-action may appear too general, however it enables to work with algebras endowed with various kinds of additional structures (e.g. Hopf (co)module algebras, graded algebras, algebras with an action of a (semi)group by (anti)endomorphisms). This approach proves to be especially fruitful in the theory of polynomial identities. We show that if $A$ is a finite dimensional (not necessarily associative) algebra simple with respect to a generalized $H$-action over a field of characteristic $0$, then there exists $\lim_{n\to\infty}\sqrt[n]{c_n^H(A)} \in \mathbb R_+$ where $\left(c_n^H(A)\right)_{n=1}^\infty$ is the sequence of codimensions of polynomial $H$-identities of $A$. In particular, if $A$ is a finite dimensional (not necessarily group graded) graded-simple algebra, then there exists $\lim_{n\to\infty}\sqrt[n]{c_n^{\mathrm{gr}}(A)} \in \mathbb R_+$ where $\left(c_n^{\mathrm{gr}}(A)\right)_{n=1}^\infty$ is the sequence of co

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  • Millimeter wave (mmWave) communications have recently attracted large research interest, since the huge available bandwidth can potentially lead to rates of multiple Gbps (gigabit per second) per user. Though mmWave can be readily used in stationary scenarios such as indoor hotspots or backhaul, it is challenging to use mmWave in mobile networks, where the transmitting/receiving nodes may be moving, channels may have a complicated structure, and the coordination among multiple nodes is difficult. To fully exploit the high potential rates of mmWave in mobile networks, lots of technical problems must be addressed. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of mmWave communications for future mobile networks (5G and beyond). We first summarize the recent channel measurement campaigns and modeling results. Then, we discuss in detail recent progresses in multiple input multiple output (MIMO) transceiver design for mmWave communications. After that, we provide an overview of the solution for

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  • For $q,n,d \in \mathbb{N}$, let $A_q(n,d)$ be the maximum size of a code $C \subseteq [q]^n$ with minimum distance at least $d$. We give a divisibility argument resulting in the new upper bounds $A_5(8,6) \leq 65$, $A_4(11,8)\leq 60$ and $A_3(16,11) \leq 29$. These in turn imply the new upper bounds $A_5(9,6) \leq 325$, $A_5(10,6) \leq 1625$, $A_5(11,6) \leq 8125$ and $A_4(12,8) \leq 240$. Furthermore, we prove that for $\mu,q \in \mathbb{N}$, there is a 1-1-correspondence between symmetric $(\mu,q)$-nets (which are certain designs) and codes $C \subseteq [q]^{\mu q}$ of size $\mu q^2$ with minimum distance at least $\mu q - \mu$. We derive the new upper bounds $A_4(9,6) \leq 120$ and $A_4(10,6) \leq 480$ from these `symmetric net' codes.

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  • This paper presents a novel mass-conservative mixed multiscale method for solving flow equations in heterogeneous porous media. The media properties (the permeability) contain multiple scales and high contrast. The proposed method solves the flow equation in a mixed formulation on a coarse grid by constructing multiscale basis functions. The resulting velocity field is mass conservative on the fine grid. Our main goal is to obtain first-order convergence in terms of the mesh size which is independent of local contrast. This is achieved, first, by constructing some auxiliary spaces, which contain global information that can not be localized, in general. This is built on our previous work on the Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM). In the auxiliary space, multiscale basis functions corresponding to small (contrast-dependent) eigenvalues are selected. These basis functions represent the high-conductivity channels (which connect the boundaries of a coarse block). Next, we

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  • Topos quantum theory provides representations of quantum states as direct generalizations of the probability distribution, namely probability valuation. In this article, we consider extensions of a known bijective correspondence between quantum states and probability valuations to composite systems and to state transformations. We show that multipartite probability valuations on composite systems have a bijective correspondence to positive over pure tensor states, according to a candidate definition of the composite systems in topos quantum theory. Among the multipartite probability valuations, a special attention is placed to Markov chains which are defined by generalizing classical Markov chains from probability theory. We find an incompatibility between the multipartite probability valuations and a monogamy property of quantum states, which trivializes the Markov chains to product probability valuations. Several observations on the transformations of probability valuations are deduc

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  • In the paper, we study the minimization problem of a non-convex sparsity promoting penalty function $$P_{a}(x)=\sum_{i=1}^{n}p_{a}(x_{i})=\sum_{i=1}^{n}\frac{a|x_{i}|}{1+a|x_{i}|}$$ in compressed sensing, which is called fraction function. Firstly, we discuss the equivalence of $\ell_{0}$ minimization and fraction function minimization. It is proved that there corresponds a constant $a^{**}>0$ such that, whenever $a>a^{**}$, every solution to $(FP_{a})$ also solves $(P_{0})$, that the uniqueness of global minimizer of $(FP_{a})$ and its equivalence to $(P_{0})$ if the sensing matrix $A$ satisfies a restricted isometry property (RIP) and, last but the most important, that the optimal solution to the regularization problem $(FP_{a}^\lambda)$ also solves $(FP_{a})$ if the certain condition is satisfied, which is similar to the regularization problem in convex optimal theory. Secondly, we study the properties of the optimal solution to the regularization problem $(FP^{\lambda}_{a})$

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  • Let $k$ be an algebraically closed field of characteristic $p > 0$ and let $G$ be a connected reductive algebraic group over $k$. Under some standard hypothesis on $G$, we give a direct approach to the finite $W$-algebra $U(\mathfrak g,e)$ associated to a nilpotent element $e \in \mathfrak g = \operatorname{Lie} G$. We prove a PBW theorem and deduce a number of consequences, then move on to define and study the $p$-centre of $U(\mathfrak g,e)$, which allows us to define reduced finite $W$-algebras $U_\eta(\mathfrak g,e)$ and we verify that they coincide with those previously appearing in the work of Premet. Finally, we prove a modular version of Skryabin's equivalence of categories, generalizing recent work of the second author.

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  • We investigate compactness phenomena involving free boundary minimal hypersurfaces in Riemannian manifolds of dimension less than eight. We provide natural geometric conditions that ensure strong one-sheeted graphical subsequential convergence, discuss the limit behaviour when multi-sheeted convergence happens and derive various consequences in terms of finiteness and topological control.

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    More is More

    05-17 Hacker News 15

    More is More

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  • We study minimal Lorentz surfaces in the pseudo-Euclidean 4-space with neutral metric whose Gauss curvature $K$ and normal curvature $\varkappa$ satisfy the inequality $K^2-\varkappa^2 >0$. Such surfaces we call minimal Lorentz surfaces of general type. On any surface of this class we introduce geometrically determined canonical parameters and prove that the Gauss curvature and the normal curvature of the surface satisfy a system of two natural partial differential equations. Conversely, any solution to this system determines a unique (up to a rigid motion) minimal Lorentz surface of general type such that the given parameters are canonical.

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  • In this work we deal with the recently introduced concept of weaving frames. We extend the concept to include multi-window frames and present the first sufficient criteria for a family of multi-window Gabor frames to be woven. We give a Hilbert space norm criterion and a pointwise criterion in phase space. The key ingredient are localization operators in phase space and we give examples of woven multi-window Gabor frames consisting of Hermite functions.

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  • We give a new class of multidimensional $p$-adic continued fraction algorithms. We propose an algorithm in the class for which we can expect that multidimensional $p$-adic version of Lagrange's Theorem holds.

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  • We have undertaken an algorithmic search for new integrable semi-discretizations of physically relevant nonlinear partial differential equations. The search is performed by using a compatibility condition for the discrete Lax operators and symbolic computations. We have discovered a new integrable system of coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations which combines elements of the Ablowitz-Ladik lattice and the triangular-lattice ribbon studied by Vakhnenko. We show that the continuum limit of the new integrable system is given by uncoupled complex modified Korteweg-de Vries equations and uncoupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations.

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  • We establish upper bounds for the convolution operator acting between interpolation spaces. This will provide several examples of Young Inequalities in different families of function spaces. We use this result to prove a bilinear interpolation theorem and we show applications to the study of bilinear multipliers.

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  • This paper concerns the continuous time mean-variance portfolio selection problem with a special nonlinear wealth equation. This nonlinear wealth equation has nonsmooth random coefficients and the dual method developed in [7] does not work. To apply the completion of squares technique, we introduce two Riccati equations to cope with the positive and negative part of the wealth process separately. We obtain the efficient portfolio strategy and efficient frontier for this problem. Finally, we find the appropriate sub-derivative claimed in [7] using convex duality method.

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  • We offer a generalization of a formula of Popov involving the Von Mangoldt function. Some commentary on its relation to other results in analytic number theory is mentioned as well as an analogue involving the m$\ddot{o}$bius function.

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  • This paper deals with the Orthogonal Procrustes Problem in R^D by considering either two distinct point configurations or the distribution of distances of two point configurations. The objective is to align two distinct point configurations by first finding a correspondence between the points and then constructing the map which aligns the configurations.This idea is also extended to epsilon-distorted diffeomorphisms which were introduced in [30] by Fefferman and Damelin. Examples are given to show when distributions of distances do not allow alignment if the distributions match, and when we can partition our configurations into polygons in order to construct the maximum possible correspondences between the configurations, considering their areas. Included is also a brief overview of reconstructing configurations, given their distance distributions. Finally, some algorithms are described for configurations with matching points along with examples, where we find a permutation which will

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  • Let $k,N \in \mathbb{N}$ with $N$ square-free and $k>1$. Let $f(z) \in M_{2k}(\Gamma_0(N))$ be a modular form. We prove an orthogonal relation, and use this to compute the coefficients of Eisenstein part of $f(z)$ in terms of sum of divisors function. In particular, if $f(z) \in E_{2k}(\Gamma_0(N))$, then the computation will to yield to an expression for Fourier coefficients of $f(z)$. We give three applications of the results. First, we give formulas for convolution sums of the divisor function to extend the result by Ramanujan. Second, we give formulas for number of representations of integers by certain infinite families of quadratic forms. And at last, we determine a formula for Fourier coefficients of $f(z)\in E_{2k}(\Gamma_0(N))$, where $f(z)$ is an eta quotient, and then we show that the set $\{ f(z) \in E_{2k}(\Gamma_0(N)), k \geq 1 \}$ is finite for all $N \in \mathbb{N}$ square-free.

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  • We determine barycentric coordinates of triangle centers in the elliptic plane. The main focus is put on centers that lie on lines whose euclidean limit (triangle excess $\rightarrow 0$) is the Euler line or the Brocard line. We also investigate curves which can serve in elliptic geometry as substitutes for the euclidean nine-point-circle, the first Lemoine circle or the apollonian circles.

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  • In topological quantum computing, information is encoded in "knotted" quantum states of topological phases of matter, thus being locked into topology to prevent decay. Topological precision has been confirmed in quantum Hall liquids by experiments to an accuracy of $10^{-10}$, and harnessed to stabilize quantum memory. In this survey, we discuss the conceptual development of this interdisciplinary field at the juncture of mathematics, physics and computer science. Our focus is on computing and physical motivations, basic mathematical notions and results, open problems and future directions related to and/or inspired by topological quantum computing.

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  • The aim of this note is a proof of a recent conjecture of Kellner concerning the number of distinct prime factors of a particular product of primes. The proof uses profound results from analytic number theory, such as Walfisz's estimate of an exponential sum over primes.

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  • In the setting of symplectic manifolds which are convex at infinity, we use a version of the Aleksandrov maximum principle to derive uniform estimates for Floer solutions that are valid for a wider class of Hamiltonians and almost complex structures than is usually considered. This allows us to extend the class of Hamiltonians which one can use in the direct limit when constructing symplectic homology. As an application, we detect elements of infinite order in the symplectic mapping class group of a Liouville domain, and prove existence results for translated points.

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  • A linear automorphism of Euclidean space is called bi-circular its eigenvalues lie in the disjoint union of two circles $C_1$ and $C_2$ in the complex plane where the radius of $C_1$ is $r_1$, the radius of $C_2$ is $r_2$, and $0 < r_1 < 1 < r_2$. A well-known theorem of Philip Hartman states that a local $C^{1,1}$ diffeomorphism $T$ of Euclidean space with a fixed point $p$ whose derivative $DT_p$ is bi-circular is $C^{1,\beta}$ linearizable near $p$. We generalize this result to $C^{1,\alpha}$ diffeomorphisms $T$ where $0 < \alpha < 1$. We also extend the result to local diffeomorphisms in Banach spaces with $C^{1,\alpha}$ bump functions. The results apply to give simpler proofs under weaker regularity conditions of classical results of L. P. Shilnikov on the existence of horseshoe dynamics near so-called saddle-focus critical points of vector fields in $R^3$.

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  • The dramatic increase of observational data across industries provides unparalleled opportunities for data-driven decision making and management, including the manufacturing industry. In the context of production, data-driven approaches can exploit observational data to model, control and improve the process performance. When supplied by observational data with adequate coverage to inform the true process performance dynamics, they can overcome the cost associated with intrusive controlled designed experiments and can be applied for both monitoring and improving process quality. We propose a novel integrated approach that uses observational data for process parameter design while simultaneously identifying the significant control variables. We evaluate our method using simulated experiments and also apply it to a real-world case setting from a tire manufacturing company.

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  • Due to complexity and invisibility of human organs, diagnosticians need to analyze medical images to determine where the lesion region is, and which kind of disease is, in order to make precise diagnoses. For satisfying clinical purposes through analyzing medical images, registration plays an essential role. For instance, in Image-Guided Interventions (IGI) and computer-aided surgeries, patient anatomy is registered to preoperative images to guide surgeons complete procedures. Medical image registration is also very useful in surgical planning, monitoring disease progression and for atlas construction. Due to the significance, the theories, methods, and implementation method of image registration constitute fundamental knowledge in educational training for medical specialists. In this chapter, we focus on image registration of a specific human organ, i.e. the lung, which is prone to be lesioned. For pulmonary image registration, the improvement of the accuracy and how to obtain it in o

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  • In recent years, a great deal of interest has focused on conducting inference on the parameters in a linear model in the high-dimensional setting. In this paper, we consider a simple and very na\"{i}ve two-step procedure for this task, in which we (i) fit a lasso model in order to obtain a subset of the variables; and (ii) fit a least squares model on the lasso-selected set. Conventional statistical wisdom tells us that we cannot make use of the standard statistical inference tools for the resulting least squares model (such as confidence intervals and $p$-values), since we peeked at the data twice: once in running the lasso, and again in fitting the least squares model. However, in this paper, we show that under a certain set of assumptions, with high probability, the set of variables selected by the lasso is deterministic. Consequently, the na\"{i}ve two-step approach can yield confidence intervals that have asymptotically correct coverage, as well as p-values with proper Type-I erro

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  • The present article is devoted to functions from a certain subclass of non-differentiable functions. The arguments and values of considered functions represented by the s-adic representation or the nega-s-adic representation of real numbers. The technique of modeling such functions is the simplest as compared with well-known techniques of modeling non-differentiable functions. In other words, values of these functions are obtained from the s-adic or nega-s-adic representation of the argument by a certain change of digits or combinations of digits.

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  • We show that every interval in the homomorphism order of finite undirected graphs is either universal or a gap. Together with density and universality this "fractal" property contributes to the spectacular properties of the homomorphism order. We first show the fractal property by using Sparse Incomparability Lemma and then by more involved elementary argument.

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  • The handbuilt Nio EP9—only six of which will be built—lapped in under 7 minutes.

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  • We apply geometric techniques from representation theory to the study of homologically finite differential graded (DG) modules $M$ over a finite dimensional, positively graded, commutative DG algebra $U$. In particular, in this setting we prove a version of a theorem of Voigt by exhibiting an isomorphism between the Yoneda Ext group $\operatorname{YExt}^1_U(M,M)$ and a quotient of tangent spaces coming from an algebraic group action on an algebraic variety. As an application, we answer a question of Vasconcelos from 1974 by showing that a local ring has only finitely many semidualizing complexes up to shift-isomorphism in the derived category $\mathcal{D}(R)$.

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  • Let $\Lambda$ be a quasi-projective variety and assume that, either $\Lambda$ is a subvariety of the moduli space $\mathcal{M}_d$ of degree $d$ rational maps, or $\Lambda$ parametrizes an algebraic family $(f_\lambda)_{\lambda\in\Lambda}$ of degree $d$ rational maps on $\mathbb{P}^1$. We prove the equidistribution of parameters having $p$ distinct neutral cycles towards the $p$-th bifurcation current letting the periods of the cycles go to $\infty$, with an exponential speed of convergence. We deduce several fundamental consequences of this result on equidistribution and counting of hyperbolic components. A key step of the proof is a locally uniform version of the quantitative approximation of the Lyapunov exponent of a rational map by the $\log^+$ of the modulus of the multipliers of periodic points.

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  • The class of connected LOG (Labelled Oriented Graph) groups coincides with the class of fundamental groups of complements of closed, orientable 2-manifolds embedded in S^4, and so contains all knot groups. We investigate when Campbell and Robertson's generalized Fibonacci groups H(r,n,s) are connected LOG groups. In doing so, we use the theory of circulant matrices to calculate the Betti numbers of their abelianizations. We give an almost complete classification of the groups H(r,n,s) that are connected LOG groups. All torus knot groups and the infinite cyclic group arise and we conjecture that these are the only possibilities. As a corollary we show that H(r,n,s) is a 2-generator knot group if and only if it is a torus knot group.

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  • We derive a family of high-order, structure-preserving approximations of the Riemannian exponential map on several matrix manifolds, including the group of unitary matrices, the Grassmannian manifold, and the Stiefel manifold. Our derivation is inspired by the observation that if $\Omega$ is a skew-Hermitian matrix and $t$ is a sufficiently small scalar, then there exists a polynomial of degree $n$ in $t\Omega$ (namely, a Bessel polynomial) whose polar decomposition delivers an approximation of $e^{t\Omega}$ with error $O(t^{2n+1})$. We prove this fact and then leverage it to derive high-order approximations of the Riemannian exponential map on the Grassmannian and Stiefel manifolds. Along the way, we derive related results concerning the supercloseness of the geometric and arithmetic means of unitary matrices.

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  • Want Google? Say "Ok Google." Want Alexa? Say "Alexa." This $650 phone has both.

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  • This paper presents an efficient method to perform Structured Matrix Approximation by Separation and Hierarchy (SMASH), when the original dense matrix is associated with a kernel function. Given points in a domain, a tree structure is first constructed based on an adaptive partitioning of the computational domain to facilitate subsequent approximation procedures. In contrast to existing schemes based on either analytic or purely algebraic approximations, SMASH takes advantage of both approaches and greatly improves the efficiency. The algorithm follows a bottom-up traversal of the tree and is able to perform the operations associated with each node on the same level in parallel. A strong rank-revealing factorization is applied to the initial analytic approximation in the separation regime so that a special structure is incorporated into the final nested bases. As a consequence, the storage is significantly reduced on one hand and a hierarchy of the original grid is constructed on the o

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  • On the basis of loop group decompositions (Birkhoff decompositions), we give a discrete version of the nonlinear d'Alembert formula, a method of separation of variables of difference equations, for discrete constant negative Gauss curvature (pseudospherical) surfaces in Euclidean three space. We also compute two examples by this formula in detail.

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  • Graphcool – Serverless GraphQL Back End

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  • We give an elementary construction of a $p\geq 1$-singular Gelfand-Tsetlin $\mathfrak{gl}_n(\mathbb C)$-module in terms of local distributions. This is a generalization of the universal $1$-singular Gelfand-Tsetlin $\mathfrak{gl}_n(\mathbb C)$-module obtained in [FGR1]. We expect that the family of new Gelfand-Tsetlin modules that we obtained will lead to a classification of all irreducible $p>1$-singular Gelfand-Tsetlin modules. So far such a classification is known only for singularity $n=1$.

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  • A problem of Glasner, now known as Glasner's problem, asks whether every minimally almost periodic, monothetic, Polish groups is extremely amenable. The purpose of this short note is to observe that a positive answer is obtained under the additional assumption that the universal minimal flow is metrizable.

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  • We prove that if $M$ and $N$ are Riemannian, oriented $n$-dimensional manifolds without boundary and additionally $N$ is compact, then Sobolev mappings $W^{1,n}(M,N)$ of finite distortion are continuous. In particular, $W^{1,n}(M,N)$ mappings with almost everywhere positive Jacobian are continuous. This result has been known since 1976 in the case of mappings $W^{1,n}(\Omega,\mathbb{R}^n)$, where $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ is an open set. The case of mappings between manifolds is much more difficult.

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  • In the variational study of singular Lagrange systems, the zero energy solutions play an important role. Here for the planar anisotropic Kepler problem, we give a complete classification of the zero energy solutions under some non-degenerate condition. A method is also developed to compute the Morse index of a zero energy solution. In particular an interesting connecting between the Morse index and the oscillating behavior of these solutions is established.

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  • We classify finite dimensional $H_{m^2}(\zeta)$-simple $H_{m^2}(\zeta)$-module Lie algebras $L$ over an algebraically closed field of characteristic $0$ where $H_{m^2}(\zeta)$ is the $m$th Taft algebra. As an application, we show that despite the fact that $L$ can be non-semisimple in ordinary sense, $\lim_{n\to\infty}\sqrt[n]{c_n^{H_{m^2}(\zeta)}(L)} = \dim L$ where $c_n^{H_{m^2}(\zeta)}(L)$ is the codimension sequence of polynomial $H_{m^2}(\zeta)$-identities of $L$. In particular, the analog of Amitsur's conjecture holds for $c_n^{H_{m^2}(\zeta)}(L)$.

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  • In this paper additive bi-free convolution is defined for general Borel probability measures, and the limiting distributions for sums of bi-free pairs of selfadjoint commuting random variables in an infinitesimal triangular array are determined. These distributions are characterized by their bi-freely infinite divisibility, and moreover, a transfer principle is established for limit theorems in classical probability theory and Voiculescu's bi-free probability theory. Complete descriptions of bi-free stability and fullness of planar probability distributions are also set down. All these results reveal one important feature about the theory of bi-free probability that it parallels the classical theory perfectly well. The emphasis in the whole work is not on the tool of bi-free combinatorics but only on the analytic machinery.

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  • Let X be a smooth projective curve over a field of characteristic zero. We calculate the motivic class of the moduli stack of semistable Higgs bundles on X. We also calculate the motivic class of the moduli stack of vector bundles with connections by showing that it is equal to the class of the stack of semistable Higgs bundles of the same rank and degree zero. We follow the strategy of Mozgovoy and Schiffmann for counting Higgs bundles over finite fields. The main new ingredient is a motivic version of a theorem of Harder about Eisenstein series claiming that all vector bundles have approximately the same motivic class of Borel reductions as the degree of Borel reduction tends to $-\infty$.

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  • We establish the monotonicity property for the mass of non-pluripolar products on compact K\"ahler manifolds in the spirit of recent results due to Witt Nystr\"om. Building on this, we initiate the variational study of complex Monge-Amp\`ere equations with prescribed singularity. As applications, we prove existence and uniqueness of K\"ahler--Einstein metrics with prescribed singularity, and we also provide the log concavity property of non-pluripolar products with small unbounded locus.

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  • We describe a homotopy-theoretic approach to the moduli of $\Pi$-algebras of Blanc-Dwyer-Goerss using the $\infty$-category $P_{\Sigma}(Sph)$ of product-preserving presheaves on finite-wedges of positive-dimensional spheres, reproving all of their results in this new setting.

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  • Conjectural results for cohomological invariants of wild character varieties are obtained by counting curves in degenerate Calabi-Yau threefolds. A conjectural formula for E-polynomials is derived from the Gromov-Witten theory of local Calabi-Yau threefolds with normal crossing singularities. A refinement is also conjectured, generalizing existing results of Hausel, Mereb and Wong as well as recent joint work of Donagi, Pantev and the author for weighted Poincar\'e polynomials of wild character varieties.

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  • We study the rate of mixing of observables of Z^d-extensions of probability preserving dynamical systems. We explain how this question is directly linked to the local limit theorem and establish a rate of mixing for general classes of observables of the Z^2-periodic Sinai billiard. We compare our approach with the induction method.

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  • In this note we construct conifold transitions between several Calabi-Yau threefolds given by Pfaffians in weighted projective spaces and Calabi-Yau threefolds appearing as complete intersections in toric varieties. We use the obtained results to predict mirrors following ideas of \cite{BCKS, Batsmalltoricdegen}. In particular we consider the family of Calabi--Yau threefolds of degree 25 in $\mathbb{P}^9$ obtained as a transverse intersection of two Grassmannians in their Plucker embeddings.

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  • Given a reductive representation $\rho: \pi_1(S)\rightarrow G$, there exists a $\rho$-equivariant harmonic map $f$ from the universal cover of a fixed Riemann surface $\Sigma$ to the symmetric space $G/K$ associated to $G$. If the Hopf differential of $f$ vanishes, the harmonic map is then minimal. In this paper, we investigate the properties of immersed minimal surfaces inside symmetric space associated to a subloci of Hitchin component: $q_n$ and $q_{n-1}$ case. First, we show that the pullback metric of the minimal surface dominates a constant multiple of the hyperbolic metric in the same conformal class and has a strong rigidity property. Secondly, we show that the immersed minimal surface is never tangential to any flat inside the symmetric space. As a direct corollary, the pullback metric of the minimal surface is always strictly negatively curved. In the end, we find a fully decoupled system to approximate the coupled Hitchin system.

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  • We consider the flow in direction $\theta$ on a translation surface and we study the asymptotic behavior for $r\to 0$ of the time needed by orbits to hit the $r$-neighborhood of a prescribed point, or more precisely the exponent of the corresponding power law, which is known as \emph{hitting time}. For flat tori the limsup of hitting time is equal to the diophantine type of the direction $\theta$. In higher genus, we consider an extended geometric notion of diophantine type of a direction $\theta$ and we seek for relations with hitting time. For genus two surfaces with just one conical singularity we prove that the limsup of hitting time is always less or equal to the square of the diophantine type. For any square-tiled surface with the same topology, the diophantine type itself is a lower bound. Moreover both bounds are sharp for big sets of directions. Our results apply to L-shaped billiards.

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  • The capacity of symmetric, neighboring and consecutive side-information single unicast index coding problems (SNC-SUICP) with number of messages equal to the number of receivers was given by Maleki, Cadambe and Jafar. For these index coding problems, an optimal index code construction by using Vandermonde matrices was proposed. This construction requires all the side-information at the receivers to decode their wanted messages and also requires large field size. In an earlier work, we constructed binary matrices of size $m \times n (m\geq n)$ such that any $n$ adjacent rows of the matrix are linearly independent over every field. Calling these matrices as Adjacent Independent Row (AIR) matrices using which we gave an optimal scalar linear index code for the one-sided SNC-SUICP for any given number of messages and one-sided side-information. By using Vandermonde matrices or AIR matrices, every receiver needs to solve $K-D$ equations with $K-D$ unknowns to obtain its wanted message, wher

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  • We get behind the wheel (or handlebars) of some unusual vehicles in Nashville.

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  •  

    Maru OS – Your phone is your PC

    05-16 Hacker News 34

    Maru OS – Your phone is your PC

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  • We present a covariant multisymplectic formulation for the Einstein-Hilbert model of General Relativity. As it is described by a second-order singular Lagrangian, this is a gauge field theory with constraints. The use of the unified Lagrangian-Hamiltonian formalism is particularly interesting when it is applied to these kinds of theories, since it simplifies the treatment of them; in particular, the implementation of the constraint algorithm, the retrieval of the Lagrangian description, and the construction of the covariant Hamiltonian formalism. In order to apply this algorithm to the covariant field equations, they must be written in a suitable geometrical way which consists of using integrable distributions, represented by multivector fields of a certain type. We apply all these tools to the Einstein-Hilbert model without and with energy-matter sources. We obtain and explain the geometrical and physical meaning of the Lagrangian constraints and we construct the multimomentum (covari

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  • We present families of large undirected and directed Cayley graphs whose construction is related to butterfly networks. One approach yields, for every large $k$ and for values of $d$ taken from a large interval, the largest known Cayley graphs and digraphs of diameter $k$ and degree $d$. Another method yields, for sufficiently large $k$ and infinitely many values of $d$, Cayley graphs and digraphs of diameter $k$ and degree $d$ whose order is exponentially larger in $k$ than any previously constructed. In the directed case, these are within a linear factor in $k$ of the Moore bound.

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  • We construct a \emph{single} $\mathcal{L}_{\omega_1,\omega}$-sentence $\psi$ that codes Kurepa trees to prove the consistency of the following: (1) The spectrum of $\psi$ is consistently equal to $[\aleph_0,\aleph_{\omega_1}]$ and also consistently equal to $[\aleph_0,2^{\aleph_1})$, where $2^{\aleph_1}$ is weakly inaccessible. (2) The amalgamation spectrum of $\psi$ is consistently equal to $[\aleph_1,\aleph_{\omega_1}]$ and $[\aleph_1,2^{\aleph_1})$, where again $2^{\aleph_1}$ is weakly inaccessible. This is the first example of an $\mathcal{L}_{\omega_1,\omega}$--sentence whose spectrum and amalgamation spectrum are consistently both right-open and right-closed. It also provides a positive answer to a question in [14]. (3) Consistently, $\psi$ has maximal models in finite, countable, and uncountable many cardinalities. This complements the examples given in [1] and [2] of sentences with maximal models in countably many cardinalities. (4) $2^{\aleph_0}<\aleph_{\omega_1}<2^{\ale

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  • In this paper we obtain at least 61 new singly even (Type I) binary [72,36,12] self-dual codes as a quasi-cyclic codes with m=2 (tailbitting convolutional codes) and at least 13 new doubly even (Type II) binary [72,36,12] self-dual codes by replacing the first row in each circulant in a double circulant code by "all ones" and "all zeros" vectors respectively.

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  • Sequences with low auto-correlation property have been applied in code-division multiple access communication systems, radar and cryptography. Using the inverse Gray mapping, a quaternary sequence of even length $N$ can be obtained from two binary sequences of the same length, which are called component sequences. In this paper, using interleaving method, we present several classes of component sequences from twin-prime sequences pairs or GMW sequences pairs given by Tang and Ding in 2010; two, three or four binary sequences defined by cyclotomic classes of order $4$. Hence we can obtain new classes of quaternary sequences, which are different from known ones, since known component sequences are constructed from a pair of binary sequences with optimal auto-correlation or Sidel'nikov sequences.

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  • The paper explores various special functions which generalize the two-parametric Mittag-Leffler type function of two variables. Integral representations for these functions in different domains of variation of arguments for certain values of the parameters are obtained. The asymptotic expansions formulas and asymptotic properties of such functions are also established for large values of the variables. This provides statements of theorems for these formulas and their corresponding properties.

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  • In how many ways can $n$ queens be placed on an $n \times n$ chessboard so that no two queens attack each other? This is the famous $n$-queens problem. Let $Q(n)$ denote the number of such configurations, and let $T(n)$ be the number of configurations on a toroidal chessboard. We show that for every $n$ of the form $4^k+1$, $T(n)$ and $Q(n)$ are both at least $n^{\Omega(n)}$. This result confirms a conjecture of Rivin, Vardi and Zimmerman for these values of $n$. We also present new upper bounds on $T(n)$ and $Q(n)$ using the entropy method, and conjecture that in the case of $T(n)$ the bound is asymptotically tight. Along the way, we prove an upper bound on the number of perfect matchings in regular hypergraphs, which may be of independent interest.

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  • These notes offer a lightening introduction to topological quantum field theory in its functorial axiomatisation, assuming no or little prior exposure. We lay some emphasis on the connection between the path integral motivation and the definition in terms symmetric monoidal categories, and we highlight the algebraic formulation emerging from a formal generators-and-relations description. This allows one to understand (oriented, closed) 1- and 2-dimensional TQFTs in terms of a finite amount of algebraic data, while already the 3-dimensional case needs an infinite amount of data. We evade these complications by instead discussing some aspects of 3-dimensional extended TQFTs, and their relation to braided monoidal categories.

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