A Cohomology Theory for Planar Trivalent Graphs with Perfect Matchings. (arXiv:1810.07302v1 [math.GT])

In this paper, we prove a new cohomology theory that is an invariant of a planar trivalent graph with a given perfect matching. This bigraded cohomology theory appears to be very powerful: the graded Euler characteristic of the cohomology is a one variable polynomial (called the 2-factor polynomial) that, if nonzero when evaluated at one, implies that the perfect matching is even. This polynomial can be used to construct a polynomial invariant of the graph called the even matching polynomial. We conjecture that the even matching polynomial is positive when evaluated at one for all bridgeless planar trivalent graphs. This conjecture, if true, implies the existence of an even perfect matching for the graph, and thus the trivalent planar graph is 3-edge-colorable. This is equivalent to the four color theorem---a famous conjecture in mathematics that was proven using a computer program in 1970s. While these polynomial invariants may not have enough strength as invariants to prove such a co 查看全文>>