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In this paper, we study the global dynamics of a general $2\times 2$ competition models with nonsymmetric nonlocal dispersal operators. Our results indicate that local stability implies global stability provided that one of the diffusion rates is sufficiently small. This paper continues the work in \cite{BaiLi2017}, where competition models with symmetric nonlocal operators are considered.
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At its annual Adobe Max conference, Adobe announced plans to bring a complete version of Photoshop to the iPad in 2019. Photoshop CC for iPad will feature a revamped interface designed specifically for a touch experience, but it will bring the power and functionality people are accustomed to on the desktop. This is the real, full photoshop  the same codebase as the regular Photoshop, but running on the iPad with a touch UI. The Verge's Dami Lee and artist colleagues at The Verge got to test this new version of Photoshop, and they are very clear to stress that the biggest news here isn't even having the "real" Photoshop on the iPad, but the plans Adobe has for the PSD file format. But the biggest change of all is a total rethinking of the classic .psd file for the cloud, which will turn using Photoshop into something much more like Google Docs. Photoshop for the iPad is a big deal, but Cloud PSD is the change that will let Adobe bring Photoshop everywhere. This does se
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An anonymous reader quotes a report from The Hill: An Amazon employee is seeking to put new pressure on the company to stop selling its facial recognition technology to law enforcement. An anonymous worker, whose employment at Amazon was verified by Medium, published an oped on that platform on Tuesday criticizing the company's facial recognition work and urging the company to respond to an open letter delivered by a group of employees. The employee wrote that the government has used surveillance tools in a way that disproportionately hurts "communities of color, immigrants, and people exercising their First Amendment rights." "Ignoring these urgent concerns while deploying powerful technologies to government and law enforcement agencies is dangerous and irresponsible," the person wrote. "That's why we were disappointed when Teresa Carlson, vice president of the worldwide public sector of Amazon Web Services, recently said that Amazon 'unwaveringly supports' law enforcement, defense,
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The Bro network security monitoring project has announced a name change to "Zeek". "On the Leadership Team of the Bro Project, we heard clear concerns from the Bro community that the name 'Bro' has taken on strongly negative connotations, such as 'Bro culture'. These send a sharp, antiinclusive  and wholly unintended and undesirable  message to those who might use Bro. The problems were significant enough that during BroCon community sessions, several people have mentioned substantial difficulties in getting their upper management to even consider using opensource software with such a seemingly illchosen, offputting name."
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Krystalo quotes a report from VentureBeat: Google today launched Chrome 70 for Windows, Mac, and Linux. The release includes an option to disable linking Google site and Chrome signins, Progressive Web Apps on Windows, the ability for users to restrict extensions' access to a custom list of sites, an AV1 decoder, and plenty more. You can update to the latest version now using Chrome's builtin updater or download it directly from google.com/chrome. An anonymous Slashdot reader adds: "The most anticipated addition to today's release is a new Chrome setting panel option that allows users to control how the browser behaves when they log into a Google account," reports ZDNet. "Google added this new setting after the company was accused last month of secretly logging users into their Chrome browser accounts whenever they logged into a Google website." Chrome 70 also comes with support for the AV1 video format, TLS 1.3 final, persite Chrome extension permissions, TouchID and fingerprint s
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An anonymous reader shares a report: Earlier this year, Google made a seemingly crowdpleasing tweak to its Chrome browser and created a crisis for web game developers. Its May release of Chrome 66 muted sites that played sound automatically, saving internet users from the plague of annoying autoplaying videos. But the new system also broke the audio of games and web art designed for the old audio standard  including hugely popular games like QWOP, clever experiments like the Infinite Jukebox, and even projects officially showcased by Google. After a backlash over the summer, Google kept blocking autoplay for basic video and audio, but it pushed the change for games and web applications to a later version. That browser version, Chrome 70, is on the verge of full release  but the new, autoplayblocking Web Audio API isn't part of it yet. Google communications manager Ivy Choi tells The Verge that Chrome will start learning the sites where users commonly play audio, so it can tailor
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An anonymous reader quotes a report from Recode: Facebook announced Portal last week, its take on the inhome, voiceactivated speaker to rival competitors from Amazon, Google and Apple. Last Monday, we wrote: "No data collected through Portal  even call log data or app usage data, like the fact that you listened to Spotify  will be used to target users with ads on Facebook." We wrote that because that's what we were told by Facebook executives. But Facebook has since reached out to change its answer: Portal doesn't have ads, but data about who you call and data about which apps you use on Portal can be used to target you with ads on other Facebookowned properties. "Portal voice calling is built on the Messenger infrastructure, so when you make a video call on Portal, we collect the same types of information (i.e. usage data such as length of calls, frequency of calls) that we collect on other Messengerenabled devices. We may use this information to inform the ads we show you acr
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Facebook is developing hardware for the TV, news outlet Cheddar reported Tuesday. From the report: The world's largest social network is building a cameraequipped device that sits atop a TV and allows video calling along with entertainment services like Facebook's YouTube competitor, according to people familiar with the matter. The project, internally codenamed "Ripley," uses the same core technology as Facebook's recently announced Portal video chat device for the home. Portal begins shipping next month and uses A.I. to automatically detect and follow people as they move throughout the frame during a video call. Facebook currently plans to announce project Ripley in the spring of 2019, according to a person with direct knowledge of the project. But the device is still in development and the date could be changed.
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Let $\{T(t)\}_{t\ge 0}$ be a $C_0$semigroup on a separable Hilbert space $H$. We characterize that $T(t)$ is an $m$isometry for every $t$ in terms that the mapping $t\in \Bbb R^+ \rightarrow \T(t)x\^2$ is a polynomial of degree less than $m$ for each $x\in H$. This fact is used to study $m$isometric right translation semigroup on weighted $L^p$spaces. We characterize the above property in terms of conditions on the infinitesimal generator operator or in terms of the cogenerator operator of $\{ T(t)\}_{t\geq 0}$. Moreover, we prove that a nonunitary $2$isometry on a Hilbert space satisfying the kernel condition, that is, $$ T^*T(KerT^*)\subset KerT^*\;, $$ then $T$ can be embedded into a $C_0$semigroup if and only if $dim (KerT^*)=\infty$.
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In this paper we study the contribution of monopole bubbling to the expectation value of supersymmetric 't Hooft defects in Lagrangian theories of class $\mathcal{S}$ on $\mathbb{R}^3\times S^1$. This can be understood as the Witten index of an SQM living on the world volume of the 't Hooft defect that couples to the bulk 4D theory. The computation of this Witten index has many subtleties originating from a continuous spectrum of scattering states along the noncompact vacuum branches. We find that even after properly dealing with the spectral asymmetry, the standard localization result for the 't Hooft defect does not agree with the result obtained from the AGT correspondence. In this paper we will explicitly show that one must correct the localization result by adding an extra term to the standard JeffreyKirwan residue formula. This extra term accounts for the contribution of ground states localized along the noncompact branches. This extra term restores both the expected symmetry
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We prove a blowup criterion in terms of an $L_2$bound of the curvature for solutions to the curve diffusion flow if the maximal time of existence is finite. In our setting, we consider an evolving family of curves driven by curve diffusion flow, which has free boundary points supported on a line. The evolving curve has fixed contact angle $\alpha \in (0, \pi)$ with that line and satisfies a noflux condition. The proof is led by contradiction: A compactness argument combined with the short time existence result enables us to extend the flow, which contradicts the maximality of the solution.
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When a Stanford researcher removed all the duplicate and fake comments filed with the Federal Communications Commission last year, he found that 99.7 percent of public comments  about 800,000 in all  were pronet neutrality. From a report: "With the fog of fraud and spam lifted from the comment corpus, lawmakers and their staff, journalists, interested citizens and policymakers can use these reports to better understand what Americans actually said about the repeal of net neutrality protections and why 800,000 Americans went further than just signing a petition for a redress of grievances by actually putting their concerns in their own words," Ryan Singel, a media and strategy fellow at Stanford University, wrote in a blog post Monday. Singel released a report [PDF] Monday that analyzed the unique comments  as in, they weren't a copypasta of one or dozens of other letters  filed last year ahead of the FCC's decision to repeal federal net neutrality protections. That's from the
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A new study from Nature Plants has identified the one climaterelated issue that can unite people from myriad political backgrounds  beer. From a report: Led by Wei Xie, an agricultural scientist at Peking University, the paper finds that regions that grow barley, the primary crop used to brew beer, are projected to experience severe droughts and heat waves due to anthropogenic climate change. According to five climate models that used different projected temperature increases for the coming century, extreme weather events could reduce barley yields by 3 to 17 percent. Barley harvests are mostly sold as livestock fodder, so beer availability could be further hindered by the likely prioritization of grain yields to feed cattle and other farm animals, rather than for brewing beer. The net result will be a decline in affordable access to beer, which is the most commonly imbibed alcoholic beverage in the world. Within a few decades, this luxury may be out of reach for hundreds of million
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In this paper, we use the semigroup method and an adaptation of the $L^2$method of H\"ormander to establish some $\Phi$entropy inequalities and asymmetric covariance estimates for the strictly convex measures in $\mathbb R^n$. These inequalities extends the ones for the strictly logconcave measures to more general setting of convex measures. The $\Phi$entropy inequalities are turned out to be sharp in the special case of Cauchy measures. Finally, we show that the similar inequalities for logconcave measures can be obtained from our results in the limiting case.
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We consider a distributed optimization problem over a network of agents aiming to minimize a global objective function that is the sum of local convex and composite cost functions. To this end, we propose a distributed Chebyshevaccelerated primaldual algorithm to achieve faster ergodic convergence rates. In standard distributed primaldual algorithms, the speed of convergence towards a global optimum (i.e., a saddle point in the corresponding Lagrangian function) is directly influenced by the eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix representing the communication graph. In this paper, we use Chebyshev matrix polynomials to generate gossip matrices whose spectral properties result in faster convergence speeds, while allowing for a fully distributed implementation. As a result, the proposed algorithm requires fewer gradient updates at the cost of additional rounds of communications between agents. We illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithm in a distributed signal recovery probl
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While global convergence of the DouglasRachford iteration is often observed in applications, proving it is still limited to convex and a handful of other special cases. Lyapunov functions for difference inclusions provide not only global or local convergence certificates, but also imply robust stability, which means that the convergence is still guaranteed in the presence of persistent disturbances. In this work, a global Lyapunov function is constructed by combining known local Lyapunov functions for simpler, local subproblems via an explicit formula that depends on the problem parameters. Specifically, we consider the scenario where one set consists of the union of two lines and the other set is a line, so that the two sets intersect in two distinct points. Locally, near each intersection point, the problem reduces to the intersection of just two lines, but globally the geometry is nonconvex and the DouglasRachford operator multivalued. Our approach is intended to be prototypica
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Lyapunov functions are used to prove stability of equilibria, or to indicate a gradientlike structure of a dynamical system. Zelenyak (1968) and Matano (1988) constructed a Lyapunov function for quasilinear parabolic equations. We modify Matano's method to construct a Lyapunov function for fully nonlinear parabolic equations under Dirichlet and mixed nonlinear boundary conditions of Robin type.
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One may define a trilinear convolution form on the sphere involving two functions on the sphere and a monotonic function on the interval $[1,1]$. A symmetrization inequality of Baernstein and Taylor states that this form is maximized when the two functions on the sphere are replaced with their nondecreasing symmetric rearrangements. In the case of indicator functions, we show that under natural hypotheses, the symmetric rearrangements are the only maximizers up to symmetry by establishing a sharpened inequality.
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Let $\Sigma$ be a closed, smooth hypersurface in $\Bbb R^{n + 1}$ which is axially symmetric and is contained inside the unit sphere $\Bbb S^{n}$. For a continuous function $f$, which is defined on $\Bbb S^{n}$, the main goal of this paper is to characterize the support of $f$ in case where its integrals vanish on subspheres obtained by intersecting $\Bbb S^{n}$ with the tangent hyperplanes of a certain subdomain $\mathcal{U}\subset\Sigma$ of $\Sigma$. We show that the support of $f$ can be characterized in case where its integrals also vanish on subspheres obtained by intersecting $\Bbb S^{n}$ with hyperplanes obtained by infinitesimal perturbations of the tangent hyperplanes of $\mathcal{U}$.
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LiNadler proposed a conjecture about traces of Hecke categories, which implies the semistable part of the Betti Geometric Langlands Conjecture of BenZviNadler in genus 1. We prove a Weyl group analogue of this conjecture. Our theorem holds in the natural generality of reflection groups in Euclidean or hyperbolic space.
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Variable Stepsize Variable Order (VSVO) methods are the methods of choice to efficiently solve a wide range of ODEs with minimal work and assured accuracy. However, VSVO methods have limited impact in timestepping methods in complex applications due to their computational complexity and the difficulty to implement them in legacy code. We introduce a family of implicit, embedded, VSVO methods that require only one BDF solve at each time step followed by adding linear combinations of the solution at previous time levels. In particular, we construct implicit and linearly implicit VSVO methods of orders two, three and four with the same computational complexity as variable stepsize BDF3. The choice of changing the order of the method is simple and does not require additional solves of linear or nonlinear systems.
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We show that elements of control theory, together with an application of Harris' ergodic theorem, provide an alternate method for showing exponential convergence to a unique stationary measure for certain classes of networks of quasiharmonic classical oscillators coupled to heat baths. With the system of oscillators expressed in the form $\mathrm{d} X_t = A X_t \,\mathrm{d} t + F(X_t) \,\mathrm{d} t + B \,\mathrm{d} W_t$ in $\mathbf{R}^d$, where $A$ encodes the harmonic part of the force and $F$ corresponds to the gradient of the anharmonic part of the potential, the hypotheses under which we obtain exponential mixing are the following: $A$ is dissipative, the pair $(A,B)$ satisfies the Kalman condition, $F$ grows sufficiently slowly at infinity (depending on the dimension $d$), and the vector fields in the equation of motion satisfy the weak H\"ormander condition in at least one point of the phase space.
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In this note, we consider the backward stochastic differential equation (BSDE) with generator $f(y)z^2,$ where the function $f$ is defined on an open set and locally integral. The existence and uniqueness of solution of such BSDE is explored for bounded or unbounded terminal variables. A comparison theorem and a converse theorem theorem of such BSDEs are obtained.
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We deduce from Sageev's results that whenever a group acts locally elliptically on a finite dimensional CAT(0) cube complex, then it must fix a point. As an application, we give an example of a group G such that G does not have property (T), but G and all its finitely generated subgroups can not act without a fixed point on a finite dimensional CAT(0) cube complex, answering a question by Barnhill and Chatterji.
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The spectrum of threediagonal selfadjoint $p$periodic Jacobi matrix with positive offdiagonal elements $a_n$ an real diagonal elements $b_n$ consist of intervals separated by $p1$ gaps $\gamma_i$, where some of the gaps can be degenerated. The following estimate is true $$ \sum_{i=1}^{p1}\gamma_i\geq\max(\max(4(a_1...a_p)^{\frac1p},2\max a_n)4\min a_n,\max b_n\min b_n). $$ We show that for any $p\in\mathbb{N}$ there are Jacobi matrices of minimal period $p$ for which the spectral estimate is sharp. The estimate is sharp for both: strongly and weakly oscillated $a_n$, $b_n$. Moreover, it improves some recent spectral estimates.
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We prove the crepant resolution conjecture for DonaldsonThomas invariants of hard Lefschetz CY3 orbifolds, formulated by BryanCadmanYoung, after reinterpreting it as an equality of rational functions. In order to do so, we show that the generating series of stable pair invariants on any CY3 orbifold is the expansion of a rational function. As a corollary, we deduce a symmetry of this function induced by the derived dualising functor. Our methods also yield a proof of the orbifold DT/PT correspondence for multiregular curve classes on hard Lefschetz CY3 orbifolds.
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We introduce a vector bundle version of the complex MongeAmpere equation motivated by a desire to study stability conditions involving higher Chern forms. We then restrict ourselves to complex surfaces, provide a moment map interpretation of it, and define a positivity condition (MA positivity) which is necessary for the infinitedimensional symplectic form to be Kahler. On rank2 bundles on compact complex surfaces, we prove two consequences of the existence of a "positively curved" solution to this equation  Stability (involving the second Chern character) and a KobayashiLubkeBogomolovMiyaokaYau type inequality. Finally, we prove a KobayashiHitchin correspondence for a dimensional reduction of the aforementioned equation.
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Covert communications hide the transmission of a message from a watchful adversary while ensuring a certain decoding performance at the receiver. In this work, a wireless communication system under fading channels is considered where covertness is achieved by using a fullduplex (FD) receiver. More precisely, the receiver of covert information generates artificial noise with a varying power causing uncertainty at the adversary, Willie, regarding the statistics of the received signals. Given that Willie's optimal detector is a threshold test on the received power, we derive a closedform expression for the optimal detection performance of Willie averaged over the fading channel realizations. Furthermore, we provide guidelines for the optimal choice of artificial noise power range, and the optimal transmission probability of covert information to maximize the detection errors at Willie. Our analysis shows that the transmission of artificial noise, although causes selfinterference, provi
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The goal of these lecture notes is to present in a unified way various models for the dynamics of aligning selfpropelled rigid bodies at different scales and the links between them. The models and methods are inspired from [12,13], but, in addition, we introduce a new model and apply on it the same methods. While the new model has its own interest, our aim is also to emphasize the methods by demonstrating their adaptability and by presenting them in a unified and simplified way. Furthermore, from the various microscopic models we derive the same macroscopic model, which is a good indicator of its universality.
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We propose a new approach to the numerical solution of radiative transfer equations with certified a posteriori error bounds. A key role is played by stable PetrovGalerkin type variational formulations of parametric transport equations and corresponding radiative transfer equations. This allows us to formulate an iteration in a suitable, infinite dimensional function space that is guaranteed to converge with a fixed error reduction per step. The numerical scheme is then based on approximately realizing this iteration within dynamically updated accuracy tolerances that still ensure convergence to the exact solution. To advance this iteration two operations need to be performed within suitably tightened accuracy tolerances. First, the global scattering operator needs to be approximately applied to the current iterate within a tolerance comparable to the current accuracy level. Second, parameter dependent linear transport equations need to be solved, again at the required accuracy of th
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Fast, highorder accurate algorithms for electromagnetic scattering from axisymmetric objects are of great importance when modeling physical phenomena in optics, materials science (e.g. metamaterials), and many other fields of applied science. In this paper, we develop an FFTaccelerated separation of variables solver that can be used to efficiently invert integral equation formulations of Maxwell's equations for scattering from axisymmetric penetrable (dielectric) bodies. Using a standard variant of M\"uller's integral representation of the fields, our numerical solver rapidly and directly inverts the resulting secondkind integral equation. In particular, the algorithm of this work (1) rapidly evaluates the modal Green's functions, and their derivatives, via kernel splitting and the use of novel recursion formulas, (2) discretizes the underlying integral equation using generalized Gaussian quadratures on adaptive meshes, and (3) is applicable to geometries containing edges. Several
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This report presents a low complexity, stable and time accurate method for the NavierStokes equations. The improved method requires a minimally intrusive modification to an existing program based on the fully implicit / backward Euler time discretization, does not add to the computational complexity, and is conceptually simple. The backward Euler approximation is simply postprocessed with a twostep, linear time filter. The time filter additionally removes the overdamping of Backward Euler while remaining unconditionally energy stable, proven herein. Numerical tests confirm the predicted convergence rates and the improved predictions of flow quantities such as drag and lift.
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We consider a general k dimensional discounted innite server queues process (alternatively, an Incurred But Not Reported (IBNR) claim process) where the multivariate inputs (claims) are given by a k dimensional nite state Markov chain and the arrivals follow a renewal process. After deriving a multidimensional integral equation for the moment generating function jointly to the state of the input at time t given the initial state of the input at time 0, asymptotic results for the rst and second (matrix) moments of the process are provided. In particular, when the interarrival or service times are exponentially distributed, transient expressions for the rst two moments are obtained. Also, the moment generating function for the process with deterministic interarrival times is considered to provide more explicit expressions. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of the present model by showing how it allows us to study a semiMarkov modulated innite queues process where the customers (cla
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It is well known that the labeling problems of graphs arise in many (but not limited to) networking and telecommunication contexts. In this paper we introduce the anti$k$labeling problem of graphs which we seek to minimize the similarity (or distance) of neighboring nodes. For example, in the fundamental frequency assignment problem in wireless networks where each node is assigned a frequency, it is usually desirable to limit or minimize the frequency gap between neighboring nodes so as to limit interference. Let $k\geq1$ be an integer and $\psi$ is a labeling function (anti$k$labeling) from $V(G)$ to $\{1,2,\cdots,k\}$ for a graph $G$. A {\em nohole anti$k$labeling} is an anti$k$labeling using all labels between 1 and $k$. We define $w_{\psi}(e)=\psi(u)\psi(v)$ for an edge $e=uv$ and $w_{\psi}(G)=\min\{w_{\psi}(e):e\in E(G)\}$ for an anti$k$labeling $\psi$ of the graph $G$. {\em The anti$k$labeling number} of a graph $G$, $mc_k(G)$ is $\max\{w_{\psi}(G): \psi\}$. In th
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We study a general k dimensional infinite server queues process. When the service times are fat tailed, we prove that the properly rescaled process converges to some limiting process: in particular we identify three regimes including slow arrivals, fast arrivals, and equilibrium, which lead to different limits in distribution. AMS 2000 subject classifications: Primary 60G50, 60K30, 62P05, 60K25.
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We consider a certain twoparameter family of automorphisms of the affine plane over a complete, locally compact nonArchimedean field. Each of these automorphisms admits a chaotic attractor on which it is topolgocally conjugate to the full twosided shift map, and the attractor supports a unit Borel measure which describes the distribution of the forward orbit of Haaralmost all points in the basin of attraction. We also compute the Hausdorff dimension of the attractor, which is nonintegral.
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In this paper, by virtue of Malliavin calculus, we establish a relationship between backward doubly stochastic differential equations with random coefficients and quasilinear stochastic PDEs, and thus extend the wellknown nonlinear stochastic FeynmanKac formula of Pardoux and Peng [14] to nonMarkovian case.
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Let $K \subset \mathbb R^3$ be a regular convex cone with positively curved boundary of class $C^k$, $k \geq 5$. The image of the boundary $\partial K$ in the real projective plane is a simple closed convex curve $\gamma$ of class $C^k$ without inflection points. Due to the presence of sextactic points $\gamma$ does not possess a global parametrization by projective arc length. In general it will not possess a global periodic ForsythLaguerre parametrization either, i.e., it is not the projective image of a periodic vectorvalued solution $y(t)$ of the ordinary differential equation (ODE) $y''' + \beta \cdot y = 0$, where $\beta$ is a periodic function. We show that $\gamma$ possesses a periodic ForsythLaguerre type global parametrization of class $C^{k1}$ as the projective image of a solution $y(t)$ of the ODE $y''' + 2\alpha \cdot y' + \beta \cdot y = 0$, where $\alpha \leq \frac12$ is a constant depending on the cone $K$ and $\beta$ is a $2\pi$periodic function of class $C^{k5}$
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The main object of this paper is to construct a new genuine BernsteinDurrmeyer type operators which have better features than the classical one. Some direct estimates for the modified genuine BernsteinDurrmeyer operator by means of the first and second modulus of continuity are given. An asymptotic formula for the new operator is proved. Finally, some numerical examples with illustrative graphics have been added to validate the theoretical results and also compare the rate of convergence.
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The main object of this paper is to construct new Durrmeyer type operators which have better features than the classical one. Some results concerning the rate of convergence and asymptotic formulas of the new operator are given. Finally, the theoretical results are analyzed by numerical examples.
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Artificial neural networks that learn to perform Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and related tasks using strictly local learning rules have been previously derived based on the principle of similarity matching: similar pairs of inputs should map to similar pairs of outputs. However, the operation of these networks (and of similar networks) requires a fixedpoint iteration to determine the output corresponding to a given input, which means that dynamics must operate on a faster time scale than the variation of the input. Further, during these fast dynamics such networks typically "disable" learning, updating synaptic weights only once the fixedpoint iteration has been resolved. Here, we derive a network for PCAbased dimensionality reduction that avoids this fast fixedpoint iteration. The key novelty of our approach is a modification of the similarity matching objective to encourage neardiagonality of a synaptic weight matrix. We then approximately invert this matrix using a Taylo
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We develop a correspondence between the study of Borel equivalence relations induced by closed subgroups of $S_\infty$, and the study of symmetric models and weak choice principles, and apply it to prove a conjecture of HjorthKechrisLouveau (1998). For example, we show that the equivalence relation $\cong^\ast_{\omega+1,0}$ is strictly below $\cong^\ast_{\omega+1,<\omega}$ in Borel reducibility. By results of HjorthKechrisLouveau, $\cong^\ast_{\omega+1,<\omega}$ provides invariants for $\Sigma^0_{\omega+1}$ equivalence relations induced by actions of $S_\infty$, while $\cong^\ast_{\omega+1,0}$ provides invariants for $\Sigma^0_{\omega+1}$ equivalence relations induced by actions of abelian closed subgroups of $S_\infty$. We further apply these techniques to study the FriedmanStanley jumps. For example, we find an equivalence relation $F$, Borel bireducible with $=^{++}$, so that $F\restriction C$ is not Borel reducible to $=^{+}$ for any nonmeager set $C$. This answers a qu
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In the study of the constant in Ahlfors' second fundamental theorem involving a set E_{q} of q points, branch values of covering surfaces outside E_{q} bring a lot of troubles. To avoid this situation, for a given surface S, it is useful to construct a new surface So such that L(So) <=L(S), and H(S)>=H(S), and all branch values of So are contained in E_{q}. The goal of this paper is to prove the existence of such So, which generalizes Lemma 9.1 and Theorem 10.1 in Zhang G.Y.: The precise bound for the arealength ratio in Ahifors' theory of covering surfaces. Invent math 191:197253(2013)
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Let $G/H$ be a reductive symmetric space over a $p$adic field $F$, the algebraic groups $G$ and $H$ being assumed semisimple of relative rank $1$. One of the branching problems for the Steinberg representation $\St_G$ of $G$ is the determination of the dimension of the intertwining space ${\rm Hom}_H (\St_G ,\pi )$, for any irreducible representation $\pi$ of $H$. In this work we do not compute this dimension, but show how it is related to the dimensions of some other intertwining spaces ${\rm Hom}_{K_i} ({\tilde \pi} ,1)$, for a certain finite family $K_i$, $i=1,...,r$, of anisotropic subgroups of $H$ (here ${\tilde \pi}$ denote the contragredient representation, and $1$ the trivial character). In other words we show that there is a sort of `reciprocity law' relating two different branching problems.
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A loss function measures the discrepancy between the true values and their estimated fits, for a given instance of data. In classification problems, a loss function is said to be proper if the minimizer of the expected loss is the true underlying probability. In this work we show that for binary classification, the divergence associated with smooth, proper and convex loss functions is bounded from above by the KullbackLeibler (KL) divergence, up to a normalization constant. It implies that by minimizing the logloss (associated with the KL divergence), we minimize an upper bound to any choice of loss from this set. This property suggests that the logloss is universal in the sense that it provides performance guarantees to a broad class of accuracy measures. Importantly, our notion of universality is not restricted to a specific problem. This allows us to apply our results to many applications, including predictive modeling, data clustering and sample complexity analysis. Further, we
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We study the performance of caching schemes based on LT under peeling (iterative) decoding algorithm. We assume that users ask for downloading content to multiple cacheaided transmitters. Transmitters are connected through a backhaul link to a master node while no direct link exists between users and the master node. Each content is fragmented and coded with LT code. Cache placement at each transmitter is optimized such that transmissions over the backhaul link is minimized. We derive a closed form expression for the calculation of the backhaul transmission rate. We compare the performance of a caching scheme based on LT with respect to a caching scheme based on maximum distance separable codes. Finally, we show that caching with \acl{LT} codes behave as good as caching with maximum distance separable codes.
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This paper considers the cooperative devicetodevice (D2D) systems with nonorthogonal multiple access (NOMA). We assume that the base station (BS) can communicate simultaneously with all users to satisfy the full information transmission. In order to characterize the impact of the weak channel and different decoding schemes, two kinds of decoding strategies are proposed: \emph{single signal decoding scheme} and \emph{MRC decoding scheme}, respectively. For the \emph{single signal decoding scheme}, the users immediately decode the received signals after receptions from the BS. Meanwhile, for the \emph{MRC decoding scheme}, instead of decoding, the users will keep the receptions in reserve until the corresponding phase comes and the users jointly decode the received signals by employing maximum ratio combining (MRC). Considering Rayleigh fading channels, the ergodic sumrate (SR), outage probability and outage capacity of the proposed D2DNOMA system are analyzed. Moreover, approximate
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Constructing and manipulating homotopy types from categorical input data has been an important theme in algebraic topology for decades. Every category gives rise to a `classifying space', the geometric realization of the nerve. Up to weak homotopy equivalence, every space is the classifying space of a small category. More is true: the entire homotopy theory of topological spaces and continuous maps can be modeled by categories and functors. We establish a vast generalization of the equivalence of the homotopy theories of categories and spaces: small categories represent refined homotopy types of orbispaces whose underlying coarse moduli space is the traditional homotopy type hitherto considered. A global equivalence is a functor between small categories that induces weak equivalences of nerves of the categories of $G$objects, for all finite groups $G$. We show that the global equivalences are part of a model structure on the category of small categories, which is moreover Quillen equi
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Huawei's new Mate 20 Pro has a massive screen, three cameras on the back and a fingerprint scanner embedded in the display. From a report: The new topend phone from the Chinese firm aims to secure its place at the top of the market alongside Samsung, having recently beaten Apple to become the secondlargest smartphone manufacturer in August. The Mate 20 Pro follows Huawei's tried and trusted format for its Mate series: a huge 6.39in QHD+ OLED screen, big 4,200mAh battery and powerful new Huawei Kirin 980 processor  Huawei's first to be produced at 7 nanometres, matching Apple's latest A12 chip in the 2018 iPhones. New for this year is an infrared 3D facial recognition system, similar to that used by Apple for its Face ID in the iPhone XS, and one of the first fingerprint scanners embedded in the screen that is widely available in the UK, removing the need for a fingerprint scanner on the back or a chin on the front. The Mate 20 Pro is water resistant to IP68 standards and has a slee
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Recently, socalled treebased phylogenetic networks have gained considerable interest in the literature, where a treebased network is a network that can be constructed from a phylogenetic tree, called the \emph{base tree}, by adding additional edges. The main aim of this manuscript is to provide some sufficient criteria for treebasedness by reducing phylogenetic networks to related graph structures. While it is generally known that deciding whether a network is treebased is NPcomplete, one of these criteria, namely \emph{edgebasedness}, can be verified in polynomial time. Next to these edgebased networks, we introduce further classes of treebased networks and analyze their relationships.
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In many statistical linear inverse problems, one needs to recover classes of similar curves from their noisy images under an operator that does not have a bounded inverse. Problems of this kind appear in many areas of application. Routinely, in such problems clustering is carried out at the preprocessing step and then the inverse problem is solved for each of the cluster averages separately. As a result, the errors of the procedures are usually examined for the estimation step only. The objective of this paper is to examine, both theoretically and via simulations, the effect of clustering on the accuracy of the solutions of general illposed linear inverse problems. In particular, we assume that one observes $X_m = A f_m + \sigma n^{1/2} \epsilon_m$, $m=1, \cdots, M$, where functions $f_m$ can be grouped into $K$ classes and one needs to recover a vector function ${\bf f}= (f_1,\cdots, f_M)^T$. We construct an estimators for ${\bf f}$ as a solution of a penalized optimization problem
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