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We present in this paper how the singlephoton wave function for transversal photons (with the direct sum of ordinary unitary representations of helicity 1 and 1 acting on it) is subsumed within the formalism of GuptaBleuler for the quantized free electromagnetic field. Rigorous GuptaBleuler quantization of the free electromagnetic field is based on our generalization (published formerly) of the Mackey theory of induced representations which includes representations preserving the indefinite Krein innerproduct given by the GuptaBleuler operator. In particular it follows that the results of Bia{\l}ynickiBirula on the singlephoton wave function may be reconciled with the causal perturbative approach to QED.
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We study a degenerate elliptic system with variable exponents. Using the variational approach and some recent theory on weighted Lebesgue and Sobolev spaces with variable exponents, we prove the existence of at least two distinct nontrivial weak solutions of the system. Several consequences of the main theorem are derived; in particular, the existence of at lease two distinct nontrivial nonnegative solution are established for a scalar degenerate problem. One example is provided to showthe applicability of our results.
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About 6 years ago, semitoric systems were classified by Pelayo & Vu Ngoc by means of five invariants. Standard examples are the coupled spin oscillator on $\mathbb{S}^2 \times \mathbb{R}^2$ and coupled angular momenta on $\mathbb{S}^2 \times \mathbb{S}^2$, both having exactly one focusfocus singularity. But so far there were no explicit examples of systems with more than one focusfocus singularity which are semitoric in the sense of that classification. This paper introduces a 6parameter family of integrable systems on $\mathbb{S}^2 \times \mathbb{S}^2$ and proves that, for certain ranges of the parameters, it is a compact semitoric system with precisely two focusfocus singularities. Since the twisting index (one of the semitoric invariants) is related to the relationship between different focusfocus points, this paper provides systems for the future study of the twisting index.
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In this paper we consider a distributed convex optimization problem over timevarying undirected networks. We propose a dual method, primarily averaged network dual ascent (PANDA), that is proven to converge Rlinearly to the optimal point given that the agents objective functions are strongly convex and have Lipschitz continuous gradients. Like dual decomposition, PANDA requires half the amount of variable exchanges per iterate of methods based on DIGing, and can provide with practical improved performance as empirically demonstrated.
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A novel masslumping strategy for a mixed finite element approximation of Maxwell's equations is proposed. On structured orthogonal grids the resulting method coincides with the spatial discretization of the Yee scheme. The proposed method, however, generalizes naturally to unstructured grids and anisotropic materials and thus yields a variational extension of the Yee scheme for these situations.
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By theorems of Carlson and Renaudin, the theory of $(\infty,1)$categories embeds in that of prederivators. The purpose of this paper is to give a twofold answer to the inverse problem: understanding which prederivators model $(\infty,1)$categories, either strictly or in a homotopical sense. First, we characterize which prederivators arise on the nose as prederivators associated to quasicategories. Next, we put a model structure on the category of prederivators and strict natural transformations, and prove a Quillen equivalence with the Joyal model structure for quasicategories.
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This work proposes two nodal type nonconforming finite elements over convex quadrilaterals, which are parts of a finite element exact sequence. Both elements are of 12 degrees of freedom (DoFs) with polynomial shape function spaces selected. The first one is designed for fourth order elliptic singular perturbation problems, and the other works for Brinkman problems. Numerical examples are also provided.
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We show that the $\ell$adic Tate conjecture for divisors on smooth proper varieties over finitely generated fields of positive characteristic follows from the $\ell$adic Tate conjecture for divisors on smooth projective surfaces over finite fields. Similar results for cycles of higher codimension are given.
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The LandsbergSchaar relation is a classical identity between quadratic Gauss sums, normally used as a stepping stone to prove quadratic reciprocity. The LandsbergSchaar relation itself is usually proved by carefully taking a limit in the functional equation for Jacobi's theta function. In this article we present a direct proof, avoiding any analysis.
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These brief lecture notes are intended mainly for undergraduate students in engineering or physics or mathematics who have met or will soon be meeting the Dirac delta function and some other objects related to it. These students might have already felt  or might in the near future feel  not entirely comfortable with the usual intuitive explanations about how to "integrate" or "differentiate" or take the "Fourier transform" of these objects. These notes will reveal to these students that there is a precise and rigorous way, and this also means a more useful and reliable way, to define these objects and the operations performed upon them. This can be done without any prior knowledge of functional analysis or of Lebesgue integration. Readers of these notes are assumed to only have studied basic courses in linear algebra, and calculus of functions of one and two variables, and an introductory course about the Fourier transform of functions of one variable. Most of the results and proofs
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In this work, we are concerned with hierarchically hyperbolic spaces and hierarchically hyperbolic groups. Our main result is a wide generalization of a combination theorem of Behrstock, Hagen, and Sisto. In particular, as a consequence, we show that any finite graph product of hierarchically hyperbolic groups is again a hierarchically hyperbolic group, thereby answering a question posed by Behrstock, Hagen, and Sisto. In order to operate in such a general setting, we establish a number of structural results for hierarchically hyperbolic spaces and hieromorphisms (that is, morphisms between such spaces), and we introduce two new notions for hierarchical hyperbolicity, that is concreteness and the intersection property, proving that they are satisfied in all known examples.
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In this paper we prove that the ball maximizes the first eigenvalue of the Robin Laplacian operator with negative boundary parameter, among all convex sets of \mathbb{R}^n with prescribed perimeter. The key of the proof is a dearrangement procedure of the first eigenfunction of the ball on the level sets of the distance function to the boundary of the convex set, which controls the boundary and the volume energies of the Rayleigh quotient.
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For a long time, the Dirichlet process has been the gold standard discrete random measure in Bayesian nonparametrics. The PitmanYor process provides a simple and mathematically tractable generalization, allowing for a very flexible control of the clustering behaviour. Two commonly used representations of the PitmanYor process are the stickbreaking process and the Chinese restaurant process. The former is a constructive representation of the process which turns out very handy for practical implementation, while the latter describes the partition distribution induced. However, the usual proof of the connection between them is indirect and involves measure theory. We provide here an elementary proof of PitmanYor's Chinese Restaurant process from its stickbreaking representation.
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We propose a direct numerical method for the solution of an optimal control problem governed by a twoside spacefractional diffusion equation. The presented method contains two main steps. In the first step, the space variable is discretized by using the JacobiGauss pseudospectral discretization and, in this way, the original problem is transformed into a classical integerorder optimal control problem. The main challenge, which we faced in this step, is to derive the left and right fractional differentiation matrices. In this respect, novel techniques for derivation of these matrices are presented. In the second step, the LegendreGaussRadau pseudospectral method is employed. With these two steps, the original problem is converted into a convex quadratic optimization problem, which can be solved efficiently by available methods. Our approach can be easily implemented and extended to cover fractional optimal control problems with state constraints. Five test examples are provided to
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We illustrate how the different kinds of constraints acting on an impulsive mechanical system can be clearly described in the geometric setup given by the configuration spacetime bundle $\pi_t:\mathcal{M} \to \mathbb{E}$ and its first jet extension $\pi: J_1 \to \mathcal{M}$ in a way that ensures total compliance with axioms and invariance requirements of Classical Mechanics. We specify the differences between geometric and constitutive characterizations of a constraint. We point out the relevance of the role played by the concept of frame of reference, underlining when the frame independence is mandatorily required and when a choice of a frame is an inescapable need. The thorough rationalization allows the introduction of unusual but meaningful kinds of constraints, such as unilateral kinetic constraints or breakable constraints, and of new theoretical aspects, such as the possible dependence of the impulsive reaction by the active forces acting on the system.
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An inequality of BrascampLiebLuttinger and of Rogers states that among subsets of Euclidean space $\mathbb{R}^d$ of specified Lebesgue measures, balls centered at the origin are maximizers of certain functionals defined by multidimensional integrals. For $d>1$, this inequality only applies to functionals invariant under a diagonal action of $\text{Sl}(d)$. We investigate functionals of this type, and their maximizers, in perhaps the simplest situation in which $\text{Sl}(d)$ invariance does not hold. Assuming a more limited symmetry involving dilations but not rotations, we show under natural hypotheses that maximizers exist, and moreover, that there exist distinguished maximizers whose structure reflects this limited symmetry. For small perturbations of the $\text{Sl}(d)$invariant framework we show that these distinguished maximizers are strongly convex sets with infinitely differentiable boundaries. It is shown that maximizers fail to exist for certain arbitrarily small pertur
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The study of frequency synchronization configurations in Kuramoto models is a ubiquitous mathematical problem that has found applications in many seemingly independent fields. In this paper, we focus on networks whose underlying graph are cycle graphs. Based on the recent result on the upper bound of the frequency synchronization configurations in this context, we propose a toric deformation homotopy method for locating all frequency synchronization configurations with complexity that is linear in this upper bound. Loosely based on the polyhedral homotopy method, this homotopy induces a deformation of the set of the synchronization configurations into a series of toric varieties, yet our method has the distinct advantage of avoiding the costly step of computing mixed cells. We also explore the important consequences of this homotopy method in the context of direct acyclic decomposition of Kuramoto networks and tropical stable intersection points for Kuramoto equations.
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The infinitedimensional information operator for the nuisance parameter plays a key role in semiparametric inference, as it is closely related to the regular estimability of the target parameter. Calculation of information operators has traditionally proceeded in a casebycase manner and has easily entailed lengthy derivations with complicated arguments. We develop a unified framework for this task by exploiting commonality in the form of semiparametric likelihoods. The general formula allows one to derive information operators with simple calculus and, if necessary at all, a minimal amount of probabilistic evaluations. This streamlined approach shows its efficiency and versatility in application to a number of popular models in survival analysis, inverse problems, and missing data.
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We obtain a weak homotopy equivalence type result between two topological groups associated with a Kirchberg algebra: the unitary group of the continuous asymptotic centralizer and the loop group of the automorphism group of the stabilization. This result plays a crucial role in our subsequent work on the classification of poly$\mathbb{Z}$ group actions on Kirchberg algebras. As a special case, we show that the $K$groups of the continuous asymptotic centralizer are isomorphic to the $KK$groups of the Kirchberg algebra.
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We study nonparametric estimators of conditional Kendall's tau, a measure of concordance between two random variables given some covariates. We prove nonasymptotic bounds with explicit constants, that hold with high probabilities. We provide "direct proofs" of the consistency and the asymptotic law of conditional Kendall's tau. A simulation study evaluates the numerical performance of such nonparametric estimators.
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This paper develops a lownonnegativerank approximation method to identify the state aggregation structure of a finitestate Markov chain under an assumption that the state space can be mapped into a handful of metastates. The number of metastates is characterized by the nonnegative rank of the Markov transition matrix. Motivated by the success of the nuclear norm relaxation in low rank minimization problems, we propose an atomic regularizer as a convex surrogate for the nonnegative rank and formulate a convex optimization problem. Because the atomic regularizer itself is not computationally tractable, we instead solve a sequence of problems involving a nonnegative factorization of the Markov transition matrices by using the proximal alternating linearized minimization method. Two methods for adjusting the rank of factorization are developed so that local minima are escaped. One is to append an additional column to the factorized matrices, which can be interpreted as an approximatio
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In this article we consider a microscopic model for hostvector disease transmission based on configuration space analysis. Using Vlasov scaling we obtain the corresponding mesoscopic (kinetic) equations, describing the density of susceptible and infected compartments in space. The resulting system of equations can be seen as a generalization to a spatial SISUV model.
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The Novikov equation is an integrable analogue of the CamassaHolm equation with a cubic (rather than quadratic) nonlinear term. Both these equations support a special family of weak solutions called multipeakon solutions. In this paper, an approach involving Pfaffians is applied to study multipeakons of the Novikov equation. First, we show that the Novikov peakon ODEs describe an isospectral flow on the manifold cut out by certain Pfaffian identities. Then, a link between the Novikov peakons and the finite Toda lattice of BKP type (BToda lattice) is established based on the use of Pfaffians. Finally, certain generalizations of the Novikov equation and the finite BToda lattice are proposed together with special solutions. To our knowledge, it is the first time that the peakon problem is interpreted in terms of Pfaffians.
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Given a sequential learning algorithm and a target model, sequential machine teaching aims to find the shortest training sequence to drive the learning algorithm to the target model. We present the first principled way to find such shortest training sequences. Our key insight is to formulate sequential machine teaching as a timeoptimal control problem. This allows us to solve sequential teaching by leveraging key theoretical and computational tools developed over the past 60 years in the optimal control community. Specifically, we study the Pontryagin Maximum Principle, which yields a necessary condition for optimality of a training sequence. We present analytic, structural, and numerical implications of this approach on a case study with a leastsquares loss function and gradient descent learner. We compute optimal training sequences for this problem, and although the sequences seem circuitous, we find that they can vastly outperform the best available heuristics for generating train
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This paper considers the consensus performance improvement problem of networked general linear agents subject to external disturbances over Markovian randomly switching communication topologies. The consensus control laws can only use its local output information. Firstly, a class of fullorder observerbased control protocols is proposed to solve this problem, which depends solely on the relative outputs of neighbours. Then, to eliminate the redundancy involved in the fullorder observer, a class of reducedorder observerbased control protocols is designed. Algorithms to construct both protocols are presented, which guarantee that agents can reach consensus in the asymptotic mean square sense when they are not perturbed by disturbances, and that they have decent $H_{\infty}$ performance and transient performance when the disturbances exist. At the end of this manuscript, numerical simulations which apply both algorithms to four networked Raptor90 helicopters are performed to verify
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It is a wellknown fact that a stability condition $\phi: Obj^* \mathcal{A} \to \mathcal{I}$ over an abelian length category $\mathcal{A}$ induces a chain of torsion classes $\eta_\phi$ indexed by the totally ordered set $\mathcal{I}$. Inspired by this fact, in this paper we study all chains of torsion classes $\eta$ indexed by a totally ordered set $\mathcal{I}$ in $\mathcal{A}$. Our first theorem says that every chain of torsion classes $\eta$ indexed by $\mathcal{I}$ induces a HarderNarasimhan filtration to every nonzero object of $\mathcal{A}$. Building on this, we are able to generalise several of the results showed by Rudakov in \cite{Rudakov1997}. Moreover we adapt the definition of slicing introduced by Bridgeland in \cite{Bridgeland2007} and we characterise them in terms of indexed chain of torsion classes. Finally, we follow ideas of Bridgeland to show that all chains of torsion classes of $\mathcal{A}$ indexed by the set $[0,1]$ form a metric space with a natural wall and c
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The Chinese restaurant process (CRP) and the stickbreaking process are the two most commonly used representations of the Dirichlet process. However, the usual proof of the connection between them is indirect, relying on abstract properties of the Dirichlet process that are difficult for nonexperts to verify. This short note provides a direct proof that the stickbreaking process leads to the CRP, without using any measure theory. We also discuss how the stickbreaking representation arises naturally from the CRP.
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The M\"obius invariant space $\mathcal{Q}_p$, $0<p<\infty$, consists of functions $f$ which are analytic in the open unit disk $\mathbb{D}$ with $$ \f\_{\mathcal{Q}_p}=f(0)+\sup_{w\in \D} \left(\int_\D f'(z)^2(1\sigma_w(z)^2)^p dA(z)\right)^{1/2}<\infty, $$ where $\sigma_w(z)=(wz)/(1\overline{w}z)$ and $dA$ is the area measure on $\mathbb{D}$. It is known that the following inequality $$ f(0)+\sup_{w\in \D} \left(\int_\D \left\frac{f(z)f(w)}{1\overline{w}z}\right^2 (1\sigma_w(z)^2)^p dA(z)\right)^{1/2} \lesssim \f\_{\mathcal{Q}_p} $$ played a key role to characterize multipliers and certain Carleson measures for $\mathcal{Q}_p$ spaces. The converse of the inequality above is a conjecturedinequality in [14]. In this paper, we show that this conjecturedinequality is true for $p>1$ and it does not hold for $0<p\leq 1$.
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We show that the threedimensional homology cobordism group admits an infiniterank summand. It was previously known that the homology cobordism group contains a $\mathbb{Z}^\infty$subgroup and a $\mathbb{Z}$summand. Our proof proceeds by introducing an algebraic variant of the involutive Heegaard Floer package of HendricksManolescu and HendricksManolescuZemke. This is inspired by an analogous argument in the setting of knot concordance due to the second author.
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In the Ising model, we consider the problem of estimating the covariance of the spins at two specified vertices. In the ferromagnetic case, it is easy to obtain an additive approximation to this covariance by repeatedly sampling from the relevant Gibbs distribution. However, we desire a multiplicative approximation, and it is not clear how to achieve this by sampling, given that the covariance can be exponentially small. Our main contribution is a fully polynomial time randomised approximation scheme (FPRAS) for the covariance. We also show that that the restriction to the ferromagnetic case is essential  there is no FPRAS for multiplicatively estimating the covariance of an antiferromagnetic Ising model unless RP = #P. In fact, we show that even determining the sign of the covariance is #Phard in the antiferromagnetic case.
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We develop a phasefield approximation of the relaxation of the perimeter functional in the plane under a connectedness constraint based on the classical ModicaMortola functional and the connectedness constraint of (Dondl, Lemenant, Wojtowytsch 2017). We prove convergence of the approximating energies and present numerical results and applications to image segmentation.
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For a separable finite diffuse measure space $\mathcal{M}$ and an orthonormal basis $\{\varphi_n\}$ of $L^2(\mathcal{M})$ consisting of bounded functions $\varphi_n\in L^\infty(\mathcal{M})$, we find a measurable subset $E\subset\mathcal{M}$ of arbitrarily small complement $\mathcal{M}\setminus E<\epsilon$, such that every measurable function $f\in L^1(\mathcal{M})$ has an approximant $g\in L^1(\mathcal{M})$ with $g=f$ on $E$ and the Fourier series of $g$ converges to $g$, and a few further properties. The subset $E$ is universal in the sense that it does not depend on the function $f$ to be approximated. Further in the paper this result is adapted to the case of $\mathcal{M}=G/H$ being a homogeneous space of an infinite compact second countable Hausdorff group. As a useful illustration the case of $n$spheres with spherical harmonics is discussed. The construction of the subset $E$ and approximant $g$ is sketched briefly at the end of the paper.
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Consider a dynamic random geometric social network identified by $s_t$ independent points $x_t^1,\ldots,x_t^{s_t}$ in the unit square $[0,1]^2$ that interact in continuous time $t\geq 0$. The generative model of the random points is a Poisson point measures. Each point $x_t^i$ can be active or not in the network with a Bernoulli probability $p$. Each pair being connected by affinity thanks to a step connection function if the interpoint distance $\x_t^ix_t^j\\leq a_\mathsf{f}^\star$ for any $i\neq j$. We prove that when $a_\mathsf{f}^\star=\sqrt{\frac{(s_t)^{l1}}{p\pi}}$ for $l\in(0,1)$, the number of isolated points is governed by a Poisson approximation as $s_t\to\infty$. This offers a natural threshold for the construction of a $a_\mathsf{f}^\star$neighborhood procedure tailored to the dynamic clustering of the network adaptively from the data.
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In this paper, we study the atomic structure of certain classes of semigroup algebras whose sets of exponents are additive submonoids of rational numbers. When studying the atomicity of integral domains, the building blocks by excellence are the irreducible elements. Here we start by extending the Gauss's Lemma and the Eisenstein's Criterion from polynomial rings to semigroup rings with rational exponents. Then we prove that semigroup algebras whose exponent sets are submonoids of $\langle 1/p \mid p \ \text{ is prime} \rangle$ are atomic. Next, for every algebraic closed field $F$, we exhibit a class of Bezout semigroup algebras over $F$ with rational exponents whose members are antimatter, i.e., contain no atoms. In addition, we use a class of rootclosed additive submonoids of rationals to construct another class of antimatter semigroup algebras over any perfect field of finite characteristic. Finally, we characterize the irreducible elements of semigroup algebras whose exponent sem
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It is becoming increasingly common to see large collections of network data objects  that is, data sets in which a network is viewed as a fundamental unit of observation. As a result, there is a pressing need to develop networkbased analogues of even many of the most basic tools already standard for scalar and vector data. In this paper, our focus is on averages of unlabeled, undirected networks with edge weights. Specifically, we (i) characterize a certain notion of the space of all such networks, (ii) describe key topological and geometric properties of this space relevant to doing probability and statistics thereupon, and (iii) use these properties to establish the asymptotic behavior of a generalized notion of an empirical mean under sampling from a distribution supported on this space. Our results rely on a combination of tools from geometry, probability theory, and statistical shape analysis. In particular, the lack of vertex labeling necessitates working with a quotient space
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Quadratic backward stochastic differential equations with singularity in the value process appear in several applications, including stochastic control and physics. In this paper, we prove existence and uniqueness of equations with generators (dominated by a function) of the form $z^2/y$. In the particular case where the BSDE is Markovian, we obtain existence of viscosity solutions of singular quadratic PDEs with and without Neumann lateral boundaries, and rather weak assumptions on the regularity of the coefficients. Furthermore, we show how our results can be applied to optimization problems in finance.
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Highspeed trains (HSTs) are being widely deployed around the world. To meet the highrate data transmission requirements on HSTs, millimeter wave (mmWave) HST communications have drawn increasingly attentions. To realize sufficient link margin, mmWave HST systems employ directional beamforming with large antenna arrays, which results in that the channel estimation is rather timeconsuming. In HST scenarios, channel conditions vary quickly and channel estimations should be performed frequently. Since the period of each transmission time interval (TTI) is too short to allocate enough time for accurate channel estimation, the key challenge is how to design an efficient beam searching scheme to leave more time for data transmission. Motivated by the successful applications of machine learning, this paper tries to exploit the similarities between current and historical wireless propagation environments. Using the knowledge of reinforcement learning, the beam searching problem of mmWave HST
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We find a decomposition formula of the local BayerMacr\`i map for the nef line bundle theory on the Bridgeland moduli space over surface. If there is a global BayerMacr\`i map, such decomposition gives a precise correspondence from Bridgeland walls to Mori walls. As an application, we compute the nef cone of the Hilbert scheme $S^{[n]}$ of $n$points over special kinds of fibered surface $S$ of Picard rank two.
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We study biLagrangian structures (a symplectic form with a pair of complementary Lagrangian foliations, also known as paraK\"ahler or K\"unneth structures) on nilmanifolds of dimension less than or equal to 6. In particular, building on previous work of several authors, we determine which 6dimensional nilpotent Lie algebras admit a biLagrangian structure. In dimension 6, there are (up to isomorphism) 26 nilpotent Lie algebras which admit a symplectic form, 16 of which admit a biLagrangian structure and 10 of which do not. We also calculate the curvature of the canonical connection of these biLagrangian structures.
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A new version of the change of the "phase" (i.e., of the set of observable characteristics) of a quantum system is proposed. In a general scenario the evolution is assumed generated, before the phase transition, by some standard Hermitian Hamiltonian $H^{(before)}$, and, after the phase transition, by one of the recently very popular nonstandard, nonHermitian (but hiddenly Hermitian, i.e., still unitarityguaranteeing) Hamiltonians $H^{(after)}$. For consistency, a smoothness of matching between the two operators as well as between the related physical Hilbert spaces must be guaranteed. The feasibility of the idea is illustrated via the twomode $(N1)$bosonic BoseHubbard Hamiltonian. In $H^{(before)}=H^{(BH)}(\varepsilon)$ we use the decreasing real $\varepsilon^{(before)} \to 0$. In the hiddenly Hermitian continuation $H^{(after)}=H^{(BH)}(\tilde{\varepsilon})$ the imaginary part of the purely imaginary $\tilde{\varepsilon}^{(after)}$ grows. The smoothness of the transition occur
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We study the effect of small random advection in two models in turbulent combustion. Assuming that the velocity field decorrelates sufficiently fast, we (i) identify the order of the fluctuations of the front with respect to the size of the advection, and (ii) characterize them by the solution of a HamiltonJacobi equation forced by white noise. In the simplest case, the result yields, for both models, a front with Brownian fluctuations of the same scale as the size of the advection. That the fluctuations are the same for both models is somewhat surprising, in view of known differences between the two models.
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We study the problem of caching optimization in heterogeneous networks with mutual interference and perfile rate constraints from an energy efficiency perspective. A setup is considered in which two cacheenabled transmitter nodes and a coordinator node serve two users. We analyse and compare two approaches: (i) a cooperative approach where each of the transmitters might serve either of the users and (ii) a noncooperative approach in which each transmitter serves only the respective user. We formulate the cache allocation optimization problem so that the overall system power consumption is minimized while the use of the link from the master node to the end users is spared whenever possible. We also propose a lowcomplexity optimization algorithm and show that it outperforms the considered benchmark strategies. Our results indicate that significant gains both in terms of power saving and sparing of master node's resources can be obtained when full cooperation between the transmitters
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We propose a purely probabilistic model to explain the evolution path of a population maximum fitness. We show that after $n$ births in the population there are about $\ln n$ upwards jumps. This is true for any mutation probability and any fitness distribution and therefore suggests a general law for the number of upwards jumps. Simulations of our model show that a typical evolution path has first a steep rise followed by long plateaux. Moreover, independent runs show parallel paths. This is consistent with what was observed by Lenski and Travisano (1994) in their bacteria experiments.
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We study the problem of finding good gauges for connections in higher gauge theories. We find that, for $2$connections in strict $2$gauge theory and $3$connections in $3$gauge theory, there are local "Coulomb gauges" that are more canonical than in classical gauge theory. In particular, they are essentially unique, and no smallness of curvature is needed in the critical dimensions. We give natural definitions of $2$YangMills and $3$YangMills theory and find that the choice of good gauges makes them essentially linear. As an application, (anti)selfdual $2$connections over $B^6$ are always $2$YangMills, and (anti)selfdual $3$connections over $B^8$ are always $3$YangMills.
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Recently, in their pioneering work on the subject of biunivalent functions, Srivastava et al. \cite{HMSAKMPG} actually revived the study of the coefficient problems involving biunivalent functions. Inspired by the pioneering work of Srivastava et al. \cite{HMSAKMPG}, there has been triggering interest to study the coefficient problems for the different subclasses of biunivalent functions. Motivated largely by Ali et al. \cite{AliRaviMaMinaclass}, Srivastava et al. \cite{HMSAKMPG} and G\"{u}ney et al. \cite{HOGGMSJSFib2018} in this paper, we consider certain classes of biunivalent functions related to shelllike curves connected with Fibonacci numbers to obtain the estimates of second, third TaylorMaclaurin coefficients and Fekete  Szeg\"{o} inequalities. Further, certain special cases are also indicated. Some interesting remarks of the results presented here are also discussed.
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We study spherical completeness of ball spaces and its stability under expansions. We introduce the notion of an ultradiameter, mimicking diameters in ultrametric spaces. We prove some positive results on preservation of spherical completeness involving ultradiameters with values in narrow partially ordered sets. Finally, we show that in general, chain intersection closures of ultrametric spaces with partially ordered value sets do not preserve spherical completeness.
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We show that any neighborhood of a nondegenerate reversible bifocal homoclinic orbit contains chaotic suspended invariant sets on $N$symbols for all $N\geq 2$. This will be achieved by showing switching associated with networks of secondary homoclinic orbits. We also prove the existence of superhomoclinic orbits (trajectories homoclinic to a network of homoclinic orbits), whose presence leads to a particularly rich structure.
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We provide a detailed analysis of the boundary layers for mixed hyperbolicparabolic systems in one space dimension and small amplitude regimes. As an application of our results, we describe the solution of the socalled boundary Riemann problem recovered as the zero viscosity limit of the physical viscous approximation. In particular, we tackle the so called doubly characteristic case, which is considerably more demanding from the technical viewpoint and occurs when the boundary is characteristic for both the mixed hyperbolicparabolic system and for the hyperbolic system obtained by neglecting the second order terms. Our analysis applies in particular to the compressible NavierStokes and MHD equations in Eulerian coordinates, with both positive and null conductivity. In these cases, the doubly characteristic case occurs when the velocity is close to 0. The analysis extends to nonconservative systems.
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By extrapolating the explicit formula of the zerobias distribution occurring in the context of Stein's method, we construct characterization identities for a large class of absolutely continuous univariate distributions. Instead of trying to derive characterizing distributional transformations that inherit certain structures for the use in further theoretic endeavours, we focus on explicit representations given through a formula for the distribution function. The results we establish with this ambition feature immediate applications in the area of goodnessoffit testing. We draw up a blueprint for the construction of tests of fit that include procedures for many distributions for which little (if any) practicable tests are known.
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An old open problem in number theory is whether Chebotarev density theorem holds in short intervals. More precisely, given a Galois extension $E$ of $\mathbb{Q}$ with Galois group $G$, a conjugacy class $C$ in $G$ and an $1\geq \varepsilon>0$, one wants to compute the asymptotic of the number of primes $x\leq p\leq x+x^{\varepsilon}$ with Frobenius conjugacy class in $E$ equal to $C$. The level of difficulty grows as $\varepsilon$ becomes smaller. Assuming the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis, one can merely reach the regime $1\geq\varepsilon>1/2$. We establish a function field analogue of Chebotarev theorem in short intervals for any $\varepsilon>0$. Our result is valid in the limit when the size of the finite field tends to $\infty$ and when the extension is tamely ramified at infinity. The methods are based on a higher dimensional explicit Chebotarev theorem, and applied in a much more general setting of arithmetic functions, which we name $G$factorization arithmetic functio
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A fullness conjecture of Kuznetsov says that if a smooth projective variety $X$ admits a full exceptional collection of line bundles of length $l$, then any exceptional collection of line bundles of length $l$ is full. In this paper, we show that this conjecture holds for $X$ as the blowup of $\mathbb{P}^{3}$ at a point, a line, or a twisted cubic curve, i.e. any exceptional collection of line bundles of length 6 on $X$ is full. Moreover, we obtain an explicit classification of full exceptional collections of line bundles on such $X$.
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We classify all edgetoedge spherical isohedral 4gonal tilings such that the skeletons are pseudodouble wheels. For this, we characterize these spherical tilings by a quadratic equation for the cosine of an edgelength. By the classification, we see: there are indeed two noncongruent, edgetoedge spherical isohedral 4gonal tilings such that the skeletons are the same pseudodouble wheel and the cyclic list of the four inner angles of the tiles are the same. This contrasts with that every edgetoedge spherical tiling by congruent 3gons is determined by the skeleton and the inner angles of the skeleton. We show that for a particular spherical isohedral tiling over the pseudodouble wheel of twelve faces, the quadratic equation has a double solution and the copies of the tile also organize a spherical nonisohedral tiling over the same skeleton.
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The goal of this paper is to classify fusion categories $\otimes$generated by a $K$normal object (defined in this paper) of FrobeniusPerron dimension less than 2. This classification has recently become accessible due to a result of Morrison and Snyder, showing that any such category must be a cyclic extension of a category of adjoint $ADE$ type. Our main tools in this classification are the results of Etingof, Ostrik, and Nikshych, classifying cyclic extensions of a given category in terms of data computed from the BrauerPicard group, and Drinfeld centre of that category, and the results of the author, which compute the BrauerPicard group and Drinfeld centres of the categories of adjoint $ADE$ type. Our classification includes the expected categories, constructed from cyclic groups and the categories of $ADE$ type. More interestingly we have categories in our classification that are nontrivial deequivariantizations of these expected categories. Most interesting of all, our clas
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In this paper we use a gradient flow to deform closed planar curves to curves with least variation of geodesic curvature in the $L^2$ sense. Given a smooth initial curve we show that the solution to the flow exists for all time and, provided the length of the evolving curve remains bounded, smoothly converges to a multiplycovered circle. Moreover, we show that curves in any homotopy class with initially small $L^3\lVert k_s\rVert_2^2$ enjoy a uniform length bound under the flow, yielding the convergence result in these cases.
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For a graph $G$, let $\chi(G)$ and $\omega(G)$ respectively denote the chromatic number and clique number of $G$. We give an explicit structural description of ($P_5$,gem)free graphs, and show that every such graph $G$ satisfies $\chi(G)\le \lceil\frac{5\omega(G)}{4}\rceil$. Moreover, this bound is best possible.
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We study compact operators on the Bergman space of the Thullen domain defined by $\{(z_1,z_2)\in \mathbb C^2: z_1^{2p}+z_2^2<1\}$ with $p>0$ and $p\neq 1$. The domain need not be smooth nor have a transitive automorphism group. We give a sufficient condition for the boundedness of various operators on the Bergman space. Under this boundedness condition, we characterize the compactness of operators on the Bergman space of the Thullen domain.
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We introduce the notion of complex $G_2$ manifold $M_{\mathbb C}$, and complexification of a $G_2$ manifold $M\subset M_{\mathbb C}$. As an application we show the following: If $(Y,s)$ is a closed oriented $3$manifold with a $Spin^{c}$ structure, and $(Y,s)\subset (M, \varphi)$ is an imbedding as an associative submanifold of some $G_2$ manifold (such imbedding always exists), then the isotropic associative deformations of $Y$ in the complexified $G_2$ manifold $M_{\mathbb C}$ is given by SeibergWitten equations.
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We consider the algorithmic problem of computing the partition function of the SherringtonKirkpatrick model of spin glasses with Gaussian couplings. We show that there is no polynomial time algorithm for computing the partition function exactly (in the sense to be made precise), unless P=\#P. Our proof uses the Lipton's reducibility trick of computation modulo large primes~\cite{lipton1991new} and nearuniformity of the lognormal distribution in small intervals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first statistical physics model with random parameters for which such average case hardness is established.
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The principal angles between binary collision subspaces in an $N$billiard system in $m$dimensional Euclidean space are computed. These angles are computed for equal masses and arbitrary masses. We then provide a bound on the number of collisions in the planar 3billiard system problem. Comparison of this result with known billiard collision bounds in lower dimensions is discussed.
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We are studying possible interaction of damping coefficients in the subprincipal part of the linear 3D wave equation and their impact on the critical exponent of the corresponding nonlinear Cauchy problem with small initial data. The main new phenomena is that certain relation between these coefficients may cause very strong jump of the critical Strauss exponent in 3D to the critical 5D Strauss exponent for the wave equation without damping coefficients.
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Identifying the unknown underlying trend of a given noisy signal is extremely useful for a wide range of applications. The number of potential trends might be exponential, which can be computationally exhaustive even for short signals. Another challenge, is the presence of abrupt changes and outliers at unknown times which impart resourceful information regarding the signal's characteristics. In this paper, we present the $\ell_1$ Adaptive Trend Filter, which can consistently identify the components in the underlying trend and multiple levelshifts, even in the presence of outliers. Additionally, an enhanced coordinate descent algorithm which exploit the filter design is presented. Some implementation details are discussed and a version in the Julia language is presented along with two distinct applications to illustrate the filter's potential.
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In this short note, we consider order convergence in the space of all Banach lattice valued Bochner integrable functions instead of almost everywhere pointwise convergence to establish two results similar to the monotone convergence theorem and the Fatou's lemma; this approach has two advantages: we can use nets instead of sequences and no monotonicity is required.
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We give two characterizations of tracially nuclear C*algebras. The first is that the finite summand of the second dual is hyperfinite. The second is in terms of a variant of the weak* uniqueness property. The necessary condition holds for all tracially nuclear C*algebras. When the algebra is separable, we prove the sufficiency.
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Let $G$ be a finite group and let $\pi$ be a set of primes. In this paper, we prove a criterion for the existence of a solvable $\pi$Hall subgroup of $G$, precisely, the group $G$ has a solvable $\pi$Hall subgroup if, and only if, $G$ has a $\{p,q\}$Hall subgroup for any pair $p$, $q\in\pi$.
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Consider the classical problem of solving a general linear system of equations $Ax=b$. It is well known that the (successively over relaxed) GaussSeidel scheme and many of its variants may not converge when $A$ is neither diagonally dominant nor symmetric positive definite. Can we have a linearly convergent GS type algorithm that works for any $A$? In this paper we answer this question affirmatively by proposing a doubly stochastic GS algorithm that is provably linearly convergent (in the mean square error sense) for any feasible linear system of equations. The key in the algorithm design is to introduce a nonuniform double stochastic scheme for picking the equation and the variable in each update step as well as a stepsize rule. These techniques also generalize to certain iterative alternating projection algorithms for solving the linear feasibility problem $A x\le b$ with an arbitrary $A$, as well as certain highdimensional convex minimization problems. Our results demonstrate th
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The wireless channel of 5G communications will have unique characteristics that can not be fully apprehended by the traditional fading models. For instance, the wireless channel may often be dominated by a finite number of specular components, the conventional Gaussian assumption may not be applied to the diffuse scattered waves and the point scatterers may be inhomogeneously distributed. These physical attributes were incorporated into the stateoftheart fading models, such as the kappamu shadowed fading model, the generalized tworay fading model, and the fluctuating two ray fading model. Unfortunately, much of the existing published work commonly imposed arbitrary assumptions on the channel parameters to achieve theoretical tractability, thereby limiting their application to represent a diverse range of propagation environments. This motivates us to find a more general fading model that incorporates multiple specular components with clusterized diffuse scattered waves, but achiev
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A family $F$ of graphs on a fixed set of $n$ vertices is called triangleintersecting if for any $G_1,G_2 \in F$, the intersection $G_1 \cap G_2$ contains a triangle. More generally, for a fixed graph $H$, a family $F$ is $H$intersecting if the intersection of any two graphs in $F$ contains a subgraph isomorphic to $H$. In [D. Ellis, Y. Filmus, and E. Friedgut, Triangleintersecting families of graphs, J. Eur. Math. Soc. 14 (2012), pp. 841885], Ellis, Filmus and Friedgut proved a 36year old conjecture of Simonovits and S\'{o}s stating that the maximal size of a triangleintersecting family is $(1/8)2^{n(n1)/2}$. Furthermore, they proved a $p$biased generalization, stating that for any $p \leq 1/2$, we have $\mu_{p}(F)\le p^{3}$, where $\mu_{p}(F)$ is the probability that the random graph $G(n,p)$ belongs to $F$. In the same paper, Ellis et al. conjectured that the assertion of their biased theorem holds also for $1/2 < p \le 3/4$, and more generally, that for any non$t$colo
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We describe a convex relaxation for the GilbertSteiner problem both in $R^d$ and on manifolds, extending the framework proposed in [9], and we discuss its sharpness by means of calibration type arguments. The minimization of the resulting problem is then tackled numerically and we present results for an extensive set of examples. In particular we are able to address the Steiner tree problem on surfaces.
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In this paper, we present a minimal chordal completion $G^*$ of a graph $G$ satisfying the inequality $\omega(G^*)  \omega(G) \le i(G)$ for the nonchordality index $i(G)$ of $G$. In terms of our chordal completions, we partially settle the Hadwiger conjecture and the Erd\H{o}sFaberLov\'{a}sz Conjecture, and extend the known $\chi$bounded class by adding to it the family of graphs with bounded nonchordality indices.
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We consider a onephase free boundary problem of the minimizer of the energy \[ J_{\gamma}(u)=\frac{1}{2}\int_{(B_1^{n+1})^+}{y^{12s}\nabla u(x,y)^2dxdy}+\int_{B_1^{n}\times \{y=0\}}{u^{\gamma}dx}, \] with constants $0<s,\gamma<1$. It is an intermediate case of the fractional cavitation problem (as $\gamma=0$) and the fractional obstacle problem (as $\gamma=1$). We prove that the blowup near every free boundary point is homogeneous of degree $\beta=\frac{2s}{2\gamma}$, and flat free boundary is $C^{1,\theta}$ when $\gamma$ is close to 0.
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