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## 信息流

• In the present paper, we were mainly concerned with obtaining estimates for the general Taylor-Maclaurin coefficients for functions in a certain general subclass of analytic bi-univalent functions. For this purpose, we used the Faber polynomial expansions. Several connections to some of the earlier known results are also pointed out.

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• In this paper we generalize the recently introduced concept of fair measure (M. Misiurewicz and A. Rodrigues, Counting preimages. Ergod. Th. & Dynam. Sys. 38 (2018), no. 5, 1837 -- 1856). We study transitive countable state Markov shift maps and extend our results to a particular class of interval maps, Markov and mixing interval maps. Finally, we move beyond the interval and look for fair measures for graph maps.

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• We show that the set of Fano varieties (with arbitrary singularities) whose anticanonical divisors have large Seshadri constants satisfies certain weak and birational boundedness. We also classify singular Fano varieties of dimension $n$ whose anticanonical divisors have Seshadri constants at least $n$, generalizing an earlier result of Liu and the author.

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• We present a unified treatment of the Fourier spectra of spherically symmetric nonlocal diffusion operators. We develop numerical and analytical results for the class of kernels with weak algebraic singularity as the distance between source and target tends to $0$. Rapid algorithms are derived for their Fourier spectra with the computation of each eigenvalue independent of all others. The algorithms are trivially parallelizable, capable of leveraging more powerful compute environments, and the accuracy of the eigenvalues is individually controllable. The algorithms include a Maclaurin series and a full divergent asymptotic series valid for any $d$ spatial dimensions. Using Drummond's sequence transformation, we prove linear complexity recurrence relations for degree-graded sequences of numerators and denominators in the rational approximations to the divergent asymptotic series. These relations are important to ensure that the algorithms are efficient, and also increase the numerical s

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• We study the asymptotic behaviour of the expected cost of the random matching problem on a $2$-dimensional compact manifold, improving in several aspects the results of L. Ambrosio, F. Stra and D. Trevisan (A PDE approach to a 2-dimensional matching problem). In particular, we simplify the original proof (by treating at the same time upper and lower bounds) and we obtain the coefficient of the leading term of the asymptotic expansion of the expected cost for the random bipartite matching on a general 2-dimensional closed manifold. We also sharpen the estimate of the error term given by M. Ledoux (On optimal matching of Gaussian samples II) for the semi-discrete matching. As a technical tool, we develop a refined contractivity estimate for the heat flow on random data that might be of independent interest.

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• We demonstrate how self-concordance of the loss can be exploited to obtain asymptotically optimal rates for M-estimators in finite-sample regimes. We consider two classes of losses: (i) canonically self-concordant losses in the sense of Nesterov and Nemirovski (1994), i.e., with the third derivative bounded with the $3/2$ power of the second; (ii) pseudo self-concordant losses, for which the power is removed, as introduced by Bach (2010). These classes contain some losses arising in generalized linear models, including logistic regression; in addition, the second class includes some common pseudo-Huber losses. Our results consist in establishing the critical sample size sufficient to reach the asymptotically optimal excess risk for both classes of losses. Denoting $d$ the parameter dimension, and $d_{\text{eff}}$ the effective dimension which takes into account possible model misspecification, we find the critical sample size to be $O(d_{\text{eff}} \cdot d)$ for canonically self-conco

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•   10-16 Hacker News 617

Acquiring absolute pitch in adulthood is difficult but possible

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•   10-16 Hacker News 606

Formality – An efficient programming language and proof assistant

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•   10-15 Hacker News 776

10% U.S. Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptors Damaged or Destroyed in Hurricaine Michael

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•   10-15 Hacker News 569

A True Story

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•   10-15 THE NEW YORKER 754

Robin Wright writes on the impact that the bizarre disappearance of the Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi has had on the image and business prospects of Saudi Arabia and its crown prince, Mohammed bin Salman.

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•   10-15 Hacker News 569

Building DSLs in Swift

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•   10-15 Hacker News 621

Getting a green card in 6 months

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•   10-15 Hacker News 604

Go 2.0 Error Handling Requirements

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•   10-15 Hacker News 808

Home Surveillance: Governments Tell Google's Nest to Hand Over Data 300 Times

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•   10-15 Hacker News 825

How I hacked hundreds of companies through their helpdesk (2017)

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•   10-15 Hacker News 832

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•   10-15 Hacker News 819

Human Retinas Grown in a Dish Reveal Origin of Color Vision

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•   10-15 Hacker News 811

I Pay for News; Why Do I Still See Intrusive Ads? (2017)

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•   10-15 Slashdot 626

According to the Henley Passport Index, compiled by global citizenship and residence advisory firm Henley & PartnersCitizens, Japan now has the most powerful passport on the planet. From a report: Having gained visa-free access to Myanmar earlier this month, Japanese citizens can now enjoy visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to a whopping 190 destinations around the world -- knocking Singapore, with 189 destinations, into second place. Germany, which began 2018 in the top spot, is now in third place with 188 destinations, tied with France and South Korea. Uzbekistan lifted visa requirements for French nationals on October 5, having already granted visa-free access to Japanese and Singaporean citizens in early February.

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•   10-15 Hacker News 838

Jeff Hawkins Is Finally Ready to Explain His Brain Research

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• Ever since selling Handspring to Palm in the early 2000s, Jeff Hawkins, creator of the Palm Pilot and founder of Palm, has been working on his true passion: neuroscience and trying to understand how the brain works. Teaming up with several neuroscientists and some former Palm people, his company Numenta, entirely funded by Hawkins himself, is now ready to show its research to the world. Mr. Hawkins says that before the world can build artificial intelligence, it must explain human intelligence so it can create machines that genuinely work like the brain. "You do not have to emulate the entire brain," he said. "But you do have to understand how the brain works and emulate the important parts." [...] Now, after more than a decade of quiet work at Numenta, he thinks he and a handful of researchers working with him are well on their way to cracking the problem. On Monday, at a conference in the Netherlands, he is expected to unveil their latest research, which he says explain

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•   10-15 Hacker News 771

Animals that are currently monitored using facial recognition technology

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•   10-15 Hacker News 773

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•   10-15 Hacker News 766

Channels, Concurrency, Cores: A New Concurrent ML Implementation (2017) [video]

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•   10-15 Hacker News 628

An Unintuitive Take on Data Augmentation for Self-Driving Cars

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•   10-14 Hacker News 621

Bayes’ Theorem in the 21st Century (2013) [pdf]

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•   10-14 Hacker News 881

Carlsberg brewery abandons plastic rings and glues beer cans together

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•   10-14 Hacker News 819

Grad Student Solved a Fundamental Quantum Computing Problem

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•   10-14 Hacker News 858

In Silicon Valley wages are down for everyone but the top 10 percent

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•   10-13 Hacker News 821

Android: The word Google didn't say during the Pixel 3 event

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• The saturation number of a graph $F$, written $\textup{sat}(n,F)$, is the minimum number of edges in an $n$-vertex $F$-saturated graph. One of the earliest results on saturation numbers is due to Erd\H{o}s, Hajnal, and Moon who determined $\textup{sat}(n,K_r)$ for all $r \geq 3$. Since then, saturation numbers of various graphs and hypergraphs have been studied. Motivated by Alon and Shikhelman's generalized Tur\'an function, Kritschgau et.\ al.\ defined $\textup{sat}(n,H,F)$ to be the minimum number of copies of $H$ in an $n$-vertex $F$-saturated graph. They proved, among other things, that $\textup{sat}(n,C_3,C_{2k}) = 0$ for all $k \geq 3$ and $n \geq 2k +2$. We extend this result to all odd cycles by proving that for any odd integer $r \geq 5$, $\textup{sat}(n, C_r,C_{2k}) = 0$ for all $2k \geq r+5$ and $n \geq 2kr$.

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• Let $A(\cdot)$ be an $(n+1)\times (n+1)$ uniformly elliptic matrix with H\"older continuous real coefficients and let $\mathcal E_A(x,y)$ be the fundamental solution of the PDE $\mathrm{div} A(\cdot) \nabla u =0$ in $\mathbb R^{n+1}$. Let $\mu$ be a compactly supported $n$-AD-regular measure in $\mathbb R^{n+1}$ and consider the associated operator $$T_\mu f(x) = \int \nabla_x\mathcal E_A(x,y)\,f(y)\,d\mu(y).$$ We show that if $T_\mu$ is bounded in $L^2(\mu)$, then $\mu$ is uniformly $n$-rectifiable. This extends the solution of the codimension $1$ David-Semmes problem for the Riesz transform to the gradient of the single layer potential. Together with a previous result of Conde-Alonso, Mourgoglou and Tolsa, this shows that, given $E\subset\mathbb R^{n+1}$ with finite Hausdorff measure $\mathcal H^n$, if $T_{\mathcal H^n|_E}$ is bounded in $L^2(\mathcal H^n|_E)$, then $E$ is $n$-rectifiable.

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• Sufficient conditions characterizing the asymptotic stability and the hybrid $L_1/\ell_1$-gain of linear positive impulsive systems under minimum and range dwell-time constraints are obtained. These conditions are stated as infinite-dimensional linear programming problems that can be solved using sum of squares programming, a relaxation that is known to be asymptotically exact in the present case. These conditions are then adapted to formulate constructive and convex sufficient conditions for the existence of $L_1/\ell_1$-to-$L_1/\ell_1$ interval observers for linear impulsive and switched systems. Suitable observer gains can be extracted from the (suboptimal) solution of the infinite-dimensional optimization problem where the $L_1/\ell_1$-gain of the system mapping the disturbances to the weighted observation errors is minimized. Some examples on impulsive and switched systems are given for illustration.

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• In this paper, we study skew constacyclic codes over the ring $\mathbb{Z}_{q}R$ where $R=\mathbb{Z}_{q}+u\mathbb{Z}_{q}$, $q=p^{s}$ for a prime $p$ and $u^{2}=0$. We give the definition of these codes as subsets of the ring $\mathbb{Z}_{q}^{\alpha}R^{\beta}$. Some structural properties of the skew polynomial ring $R[x,\theta]$ are discussed, where $\theta$ is an automorphism of $R$. We describe the generator polynomials of skew constacyclic codes over $R$ and $\mathbb{Z}_{q}R$. Using Gray images of skew constacyclic codes over $\mathbb{Z}_{q}R$ we obtained some new linear codes over $\mathbb{Z}_4$. Further, we have generalized these codes to double skew constacyclic codes over $\mathbb{Z}_{q}R$.

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• Let $P_s:= \mathbb F_2[x_1,x_2,\ldots ,x_s]$ be the graded polynomial algebra over the prime field of two elements, $\mathbb F_2$, in $s$ variables $x_1, x_2, \ldots , x_s$, each of degree 1. We are interested in the {\it Peterson hit problem} of finding a minimal set of generators for $P_s$ as a module over the mod-2 Steenrod algebra, $\mathcal{A}$. In this Note, we study the hit problem in the case $s = 5$ and the degree $4.2^t-3$ with $t$ a positive integer. Using this result, we show that Singer's conjecture for the fifth algebraic transfer is true in the above degree.

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• The distribution of certain Mahonian statistic (called $\mathrm{BAST}$) introduced by Babson and Steingr\'{i}msson over the set of permutations that avoid vincular pattern $1\underline{32}$, is shown bijectively to match the distribution of major index over the same set. This new layer of equidistribution is then applied to give alternative interpretations of two related $q$-Stirling numbers of the second kind, studied by Carlitz and Gould. An extension to an Euler-Mahonian statistic over the set of ordered partitions presents itself naturally. During the course, a refined relation between $\mathrm{BAST}$ and its reverse complement $\mathrm{STAT}$ is derived as well.

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• In this article, we will give the Deligne 1-motives up to isogeny corresponding to the $\mathbb{Q}$-limiting mixed Hodge structures of semi-stable degenerations of curves, by using logarithmic structures and Steenbrink's cohomological mixed Hodge complexes associated to semi-stable degenerations of curves.

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• The derivation by Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley of their famous neuronal conductance model relied on experimental data gathered using neurons of the giant squid. It becomes clear that determining experimentally the conductances of neurons is hard, in particular under the presence of spatial and temporal heterogeneities. Moreover it is reasonable to expect variations between species or even between types of neurons of a same species. Determining conductances from one type of neuron is no guarantee that it works across the board. We tackle the inverse problem of determining, given voltage data, conductances with non-uniform distribution computationally. In the simpler setting of a cable equation, we consider the Landweber iteration, a computational technique used to identify non-uniform spatial and temporal ionic distributions, both in a single branch or in a tree. Here, we propose and (numerically) investigate an iterative scheme that consists in numerically solving two partial differe

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• A classical result of K. L. Chung and W. Feller deals with the partial sums $S_k$ arising in a fair coin-tossing game. If $N_n$ is the number of "positive" terms among $S_1, S_2,\dots,S_n$ then the quantity $P(N_{2n}=2r)$ takes an elegant form. We lift the restriction on an even number of tosses and give a simple expression for $P(N_{2n+1}=r)$, $r=0,1,2,\dots,2n+1$. We get to this result by adapting the Feynman-Kac methodology.

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• A time series is uniquely represented by its geometric shape, which also carries information. A time series can be modelled as the trajectory of a particle moving in a force field with one degree of freedom. The force acting on the particle shapes the trajectory of its motion, which is made up of elementary shapes of infinitesimal neighborhoods of points in the trajectory. It has been proved that an infinitesimal neighborhood of a point in a continuous time series can have at least 29 different shapes or configurations. So information can be encoded in it in at least 29 different ways. A 3-point neighborhood (the smallest) in a discrete time series can have precisely 13 different shapes or configurations. In other words, a discrete time series can be expressed as a string of 13 symbols. Across diverse real as well as simulated data sets it has been observed that 6 of them occur more frequently and the remaining 7 occur less frequently. Based on frequency distribution of 13 configuratio

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• We define a 1-cocycle in the space of long knots that is a natural generalisation of the Kontsevich integral seen as a 0-cocycle. It involves a 2-form that generalises the Knizhnik--Zamolodchikov connection. Similarly to the Kontsevich integral, it lives in a space of chord diagrams of the same kind as those that make the principal parts of Vassiliev's 1-cocycles. Moreover, up to a change of variable similar to the one that led Birman--Lin to discover the 4T relations, we show that the relations defining our space, which allow the integral to be finite and invariant, are dual to the maps that define Vassiliev's cohomology in degree 1.

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• Large datasets create opportunities as well as analytic challenges. A recent development is to use random projection or sketching methods for dimension reduction in statistics and machine learning. In this work, we study the statistical performance of sketching algorithms for linear regression. Suppose we randomly project the data matrix and the outcome using a random sketching matrix reducing the sample size, and do linear regression on the resulting data. How much do we lose compared to the original linear regression? The existing theory does not give a precise enough answer, and this has been a bottleneck for using random projections in practice. In this paper, we introduce a new mathematical approach to the problem, relying on very recent results from asymptotic random matrix theory and free probability theory. This is a perfect fit, as the sketching matrices are random in practice. We allow the dimension and sample sizes to have an arbitrary ratio. We study the most popular sketch

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• We prove some functional equations involving the (classical) matching polynomials of path and cycle graphs and the $d$-matching polynomial of a cycle graph. A matching in a (finite) graph $G$ is a subset of edges no two of which share a vertex, and the matching polynomial of $G$ is a generating function encoding the numbers of matchings in $G$ of each size. The $d$-matching polynomial is a weighted average of matching polynomials of degree-$d$ covers, and was introduced in a paper of Hall, Puder, and Sawin. Let $\mathcal{C}_n$ and $\mathcal{P}_n$ denote the respective matching polynomials of the cycle and path graphs on $n$ vertices, and let $\mathcal{C}_{n,d}$ denote the $d$-matching polynomial of the cycle $C_n$. We give a purely combinatorial proof that $\mathcal{C}_k (\mathcal{C}_n (x)) = \mathcal{C}_{kn} (x)$ en route to proving a conjecture made by Hall: that $\mathcal{C}_{n,d} (x) = \mathcal{P}_d (\mathcal{C}_n (x))$.

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• We give a detailed proof of the homological Arnold conjecture for nondegenerate periodic Hamiltonians on general closed symplectic manifolds $M$ via a direct Piunikhin-Salamon-Schwarz morphism. Our constructions are based on a coherent polyfold description for moduli spaces of pseudoholomorphic curves in a family of symplectic manifolds degenerating from $\mathbb{C}\mathbb{P}^1\times M$ to $\mathbb{C} \times M \sqcup \mathbb{C}^-\times M$, as developed by Fish-Hofer-Wysocki-Zehnder as part of the Symplectic Field Theory package. The 2011 sketch of this proof was joint work with Peter Albers, Joel Fish.

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• We study the admissibility of power injections in single-phase microgrids, where the electrical state is represented by complex nodal voltages and controlled by nodal power injections. Assume that (i) there is an initial electrical state that satisfies security constraints and the non-singularity of load-flow Jacobian, and (ii) power injections reside in some uncertainty set. We say that the uncertainty set is admissible for the initial electrical state if any continuous trajectory of the electrical state is ensured to be secured and non-singular as long as power injections remain in the uncertainty set. We use the recently proposed V-control and show two new results. First, if a complex nodal voltage set V is convex and every element in V is nonsingular, then V is a domain of uniqueness. Second, we give sufficient conditions to guarantee that every element in some power injection set S has a load-flow solution in V, based on impossibility of obtaining load-flow solutions at the bounda

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• New estimates for the generalization error are established for the two-layer neural network model. These new estimates are a priori in nature in the sense that the bounds depend only on some norms of the underlying functions to be fitted, not the parameters in the model. In contrast, most existing results for neural networks are a posteriori in nature in the sense that the bounds depend on some norms of the model parameters. The error rates are comparable to that of the Monte Carlo method for integration problems. Moreover, these bounds are equally effective in the over-parametrized regime when the network size is much larger than the size of the dataset.

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• This paper presents a novel transformation-proximal bundle algorithm to solve multistage adaptive robust mixed-integer linear programs (MARMILPs). By explicitly partitioning recourse decisions into state decisions and local decisions, the proposed algorithm applies affine decision rule only to state decisions and allows local decisions to be fully adaptive. In this way, the MARMILP is proved to be transformed into an equivalent two-stage adaptive robust optimization (ARO) problem. The proposed multi-to-two transformation scheme remains valid for other types of non-anticipative decision rules besides the affine one, and it is general enough to be employed with existing two-stage ARO algorithms for solving MARMILPs. The proximal bundle method is developed for the resulting two-stage ARO problem. We perform a theoretical analysis to show finite convergence of the proposed algorithm with any positive tolerance. To quantitatively assess solution quality, we develop a scenario-tree-based low

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• In this work, we present a unified gas-kinetic particle (UGKP) method for the simulation of multiscale photon transport. The multiscale nature of the particle method mainly comes from the recovery of the time evolution flux function in the unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS) through a coupled dynamic process of particle transport and collision. This practice improves the original operator splitting approach in the Monte Carlo method, such as the separated treatment of particle transport and collision. As a result, with the variation of the ratio between numerical time step and local photon's collision time, different transport physics can be fully captured in a single computation. In the diffusive limit, the UGKP method could recover the solution of the diffusion equation with the cell size and time step being much larger than the photon's mean free path and the mean collision time. In the free transport limit, it presents an exact particle tracking process as the original Monte Carlo me

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• We propose and analyse a mathematical model for cholera considering vaccination. We show that the model is epidemiologically and mathematically well posed and prove the existence and uniqueness of disease-free and endemic equilibrium points. The basic reproduction number is determined and the local asymptotic stability of equilibria is studied. The biggest cholera outbreak of world's history began on 27th April 2017, in Yemen. Between 27th April 2017 and 15th April 2018 there were 2275 deaths due to this epidemic. A vaccination campaign began on 6th May 2018 and ended on 15th May 2018. We show that our model is able to describe well this outbreak. Moreover, we prove that the number of infected individuals would have been much lower provided the vaccination campaign had begun earlier.

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• In this thesis, we introduce a new cohomology theory associated to a Lie 2-algebras and a new cohomology theory associated to a Lie 2-group. These cohomology theories are shown to extend the classical cohomology theories of Lie algebras and Lie groups in that their second groups classify extensions. We use this fact together with an adapted van Est map to prove the integrability of Lie 2-algebras anew.

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• We present in this paper how the single-photon wave function for transversal photons (with the direct sum of ordinary unitary representations of helicity 1 and -1 acting on it) is subsumed within the formalism of Gupta-Bleuler for the quantized free electromagnetic field. Rigorous Gupta-Bleuler quantization of the free electromagnetic field is based on our generalization (published formerly) of the Mackey theory of induced representations which includes representations preserving the indefinite Krein inner-product given by the Gupta-Bleuler operator. In particular it follows that the results of Bia{\l}ynicki-Birula on the single-photon wave function may be reconciled with the causal perturbative approach to QED.

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• We study a degenerate elliptic system with variable exponents. Using the variational approach and some recent theory on weighted Lebesgue and Sobolev spaces with variable exponents, we prove the existence of at least two distinct nontrivial weak solutions of the system. Several consequences of the main theorem are derived; in particular, the existence of at lease two distinct nontrivial nonnegative solution are established for a scalar degenerate problem. One example is provided to showthe applicability of our results.

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• About 6 years ago, semitoric systems were classified by Pelayo & Vu Ngoc by means of five invariants. Standard examples are the coupled spin oscillator on $\mathbb{S}^2 \times \mathbb{R}^2$ and coupled angular momenta on $\mathbb{S}^2 \times \mathbb{S}^2$, both having exactly one focus-focus singularity. But so far there were no explicit examples of systems with more than one focus-focus singularity which are semitoric in the sense of that classification. This paper introduces a 6-parameter family of integrable systems on $\mathbb{S}^2 \times \mathbb{S}^2$ and proves that, for certain ranges of the parameters, it is a compact semitoric system with precisely two focus-focus singularities. Since the twisting index (one of the semitoric invariants) is related to the relationship between different focus-focus points, this paper provides systems for the future study of the twisting index.

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• This short paper gives another proof of the infinitude of primes by using upper box dimension, which is one of fractal dimensions.

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• In this paper we consider a distributed convex optimization problem over time-varying undirected networks. We propose a dual method, primarily averaged network dual ascent (PANDA), that is proven to converge R-linearly to the optimal point given that the agents objective functions are strongly convex and have Lipschitz continuous gradients. Like dual decomposition, PANDA requires half the amount of variable exchanges per iterate of methods based on DIGing, and can provide with practical improved performance as empirically demonstrated.

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• A novel mass-lumping strategy for a mixed finite element approximation of Maxwell's equations is proposed. On structured orthogonal grids the resulting method coincides with the spatial discretization of the Yee scheme. The proposed method, however, generalizes naturally to unstructured grids and anisotropic materials and thus yields a variational extension of the Yee scheme for these situations.

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• By theorems of Carlson and Renaudin, the theory of $(\infty,1)$-categories embeds in that of prederivators. The purpose of this paper is to give a two-fold answer to the inverse problem: understanding which prederivators model $(\infty,1)$-categories, either strictly or in a homotopical sense. First, we characterize which prederivators arise on the nose as prederivators associated to quasicategories. Next, we put a model structure on the category of prederivators and strict natural transformations, and prove a Quillen equivalence with the Joyal model structure for quasicategories.

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• This work proposes two nodal type nonconforming finite elements over convex quadrilaterals, which are parts of a finite element exact sequence. Both elements are of 12 degrees of freedom (DoFs) with polynomial shape function spaces selected. The first one is designed for fourth order elliptic singular perturbation problems, and the other works for Brinkman problems. Numerical examples are also provided.

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• We show that the $\ell$-adic Tate conjecture for divisors on smooth proper varieties over finitely generated fields of positive characteristic follows from the $\ell$-adic Tate conjecture for divisors on smooth projective surfaces over finite fields. Similar results for cycles of higher co-dimension are given.

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• The Landsberg-Schaar relation is a classical identity between quadratic Gauss sums, normally used as a stepping stone to prove quadratic reciprocity. The Landsberg-Schaar relation itself is usually proved by carefully taking a limit in the functional equation for Jacobi's theta function. In this article we present a direct proof, avoiding any analysis.

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• These brief lecture notes are intended mainly for undergraduate students in engineering or physics or mathematics who have met or will soon be meeting the Dirac delta function and some other objects related to it. These students might have already felt - or might in the near future feel - not entirely comfortable with the usual intuitive explanations about how to "integrate" or "differentiate" or take the "Fourier transform" of these objects. These notes will reveal to these students that there is a precise and rigorous way, and this also means a more useful and reliable way, to define these objects and the operations performed upon them. This can be done without any prior knowledge of functional analysis or of Lebesgue integration. Readers of these notes are assumed to only have studied basic courses in linear algebra, and calculus of functions of one and two variables, and an introductory course about the Fourier transform of functions of one variable. Most of the results and proofs

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• In this work, we are concerned with hierarchically hyperbolic spaces and hierarchically hyperbolic groups. Our main result is a wide generalization of a combination theorem of Behrstock, Hagen, and Sisto. In particular, as a consequence, we show that any finite graph product of hierarchically hyperbolic groups is again a hierarchically hyperbolic group, thereby answering a question posed by Behrstock, Hagen, and Sisto. In order to operate in such a general setting, we establish a number of structural results for hierarchically hyperbolic spaces and hieromorphisms (that is, morphisms between such spaces), and we introduce two new notions for hierarchical hyperbolicity, that is concreteness and the intersection property, proving that they are satisfied in all known examples.

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• In this paper we prove that the ball maximizes the first eigenvalue of the Robin Laplacian operator with negative boundary parameter, among all convex sets of \mathbb{R}^n with prescribed perimeter. The key of the proof is a dearrangement procedure of the first eigenfunction of the ball on the level sets of the distance function to the boundary of the convex set, which controls the boundary and the volume energies of the Rayleigh quotient.

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• For a long time, the Dirichlet process has been the gold standard discrete random measure in Bayesian nonparametrics. The Pitman--Yor process provides a simple and mathematically tractable generalization, allowing for a very flexible control of the clustering behaviour. Two commonly used representations of the Pitman--Yor process are the stick-breaking process and the Chinese restaurant process. The former is a constructive representation of the process which turns out very handy for practical implementation, while the latter describes the partition distribution induced. However, the usual proof of the connection between them is indirect and involves measure theory. We provide here an elementary proof of Pitman--Yor's Chinese Restaurant process from its stick-breaking representation.

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• We propose a direct numerical method for the solution of an optimal control problem governed by a two-side space-fractional diffusion equation. The presented method contains two main steps. In the first step, the space variable is discretized by using the Jacobi-Gauss pseudospectral discretization and, in this way, the original problem is transformed into a classical integer-order optimal control problem. The main challenge, which we faced in this step, is to derive the left and right fractional differentiation matrices. In this respect, novel techniques for derivation of these matrices are presented. In the second step, the Legendre-Gauss-Radau pseudospectral method is employed. With these two steps, the original problem is converted into a convex quadratic optimization problem, which can be solved efficiently by available methods. Our approach can be easily implemented and extended to cover fractional optimal control problems with state constraints. Five test examples are provided to

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• We illustrate how the different kinds of constraints acting on an impulsive mechanical system can be clearly described in the geometric setup given by the configuration space--time bundle $\pi_t:\mathcal{M} \to \mathbb{E}$ and its first jet extension $\pi: J_1 \to \mathcal{M}$ in a way that ensures total compliance with axioms and invariance requirements of Classical Mechanics. We specify the differences between geometric and constitutive characterizations of a constraint. We point out the relevance of the role played by the concept of frame of reference, underlining when the frame independence is mandatorily required and when a choice of a frame is an inescapable need. The thorough rationalization allows the introduction of unusual but meaningful kinds of constraints, such as unilateral kinetic constraints or breakable constraints, and of new theoretical aspects, such as the possible dependence of the impulsive reaction by the active forces acting on the system.

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• An inequality of Brascamp-Lieb-Luttinger and of Rogers states that among subsets of Euclidean space $\mathbb{R}^d$ of specified Lebesgue measures, balls centered at the origin are maximizers of certain functionals defined by multidimensional integrals. For $d>1$, this inequality only applies to functionals invariant under a diagonal action of $\text{Sl}(d)$. We investigate functionals of this type, and their maximizers, in perhaps the simplest situation in which $\text{Sl}(d)$ invariance does not hold. Assuming a more limited symmetry involving dilations but not rotations, we show under natural hypotheses that maximizers exist, and moreover, that there exist distinguished maximizers whose structure reflects this limited symmetry. For small perturbations of the $\text{Sl}(d)$--invariant framework we show that these distinguished maximizers are strongly convex sets with infinitely differentiable boundaries. It is shown that maximizers fail to exist for certain arbitrarily small pertur

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• The study of frequency synchronization configurations in Kuramoto models is a ubiquitous mathematical problem that has found applications in many seemingly independent fields. In this paper, we focus on networks whose underlying graph are cycle graphs. Based on the recent result on the upper bound of the frequency synchronization configurations in this context, we propose a toric deformation homotopy method for locating all frequency synchronization configurations with complexity that is linear in this upper bound. Loosely based on the polyhedral homotopy method, this homotopy induces a deformation of the set of the synchronization configurations into a series of toric varieties, yet our method has the distinct advantage of avoiding the costly step of computing mixed cells. We also explore the important consequences of this homotopy method in the context of direct acyclic decomposition of Kuramoto networks and tropical stable intersection points for Kuramoto equations.

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• The infinite-dimensional information operator for the nuisance parameter plays a key role in semiparametric inference, as it is closely related to the regular estimability of the target parameter. Calculation of information operators has traditionally proceeded in a case-by-case manner and has easily entailed lengthy derivations with complicated arguments. We develop a unified framework for this task by exploiting commonality in the form of semiparametric likelihoods. The general formula allows one to derive information operators with simple calculus and, if necessary at all, a minimal amount of probabilistic evaluations. This streamlined approach shows its efficiency and versatility in application to a number of popular models in survival analysis, inverse problems, and missing data.

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• We obtain a weak homotopy equivalence type result between two topological groups associated with a Kirchberg algebra: the unitary group of the continuous asymptotic centralizer and the loop group of the automorphism group of the stabilization. This result plays a crucial role in our subsequent work on the classification of poly-$\mathbb{Z}$ group actions on Kirchberg algebras. As a special case, we show that the $K$-groups of the continuous asymptotic centralizer are isomorphic to the $KK$-groups of the Kirchberg algebra.

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• We study nonparametric estimators of conditional Kendall's tau, a measure of concordance between two random variables given some covariates. We prove non-asymptotic bounds with explicit constants, that hold with high probabilities. We provide "direct proofs" of the consistency and the asymptotic law of conditional Kendall's tau. A simulation study evaluates the numerical performance of such nonparametric estimators.

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• This paper develops a low-nonnegative-rank approximation method to identify the state aggregation structure of a finite-state Markov chain under an assumption that the state space can be mapped into a handful of meta-states. The number of meta-states is characterized by the nonnegative rank of the Markov transition matrix. Motivated by the success of the nuclear norm relaxation in low rank minimization problems, we propose an atomic regularizer as a convex surrogate for the nonnegative rank and formulate a convex optimization problem. Because the atomic regularizer itself is not computationally tractable, we instead solve a sequence of problems involving a nonnegative factorization of the Markov transition matrices by using the proximal alternating linearized minimization method. Two methods for adjusting the rank of factorization are developed so that local minima are escaped. One is to append an additional column to the factorized matrices, which can be interpreted as an approximatio

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• We consider the effect of subtracting edges from complete graphs on the "tightness' of the Kruskal-Katona upper bounds for the numbers of complete subgraphs.

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• In this article we consider a microscopic model for host-vector disease transmission based on configuration space analysis. Using Vlasov scaling we obtain the corresponding mesoscopic (kinetic) equations, describing the density of susceptible and infected compartments in space. The resulting system of equations can be seen as a generalization to a spatial SISUV model.

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• The Novikov equation is an integrable analogue of the Camassa-Holm equation with a cubic (rather than quadratic) nonlinear term. Both these equations support a special family of weak solutions called multipeakon solutions. In this paper, an approach involving Pfaffians is applied to study multipeakons of the Novikov equation. First, we show that the Novikov peakon ODEs describe an isospectral flow on the manifold cut out by certain Pfaffian identities. Then, a link between the Novikov peakons and the finite Toda lattice of BKP type (B-Toda lattice) is established based on the use of Pfaffians. Finally, certain generalizations of the Novikov equation and the finite B-Toda lattice are proposed together with special solutions. To our knowledge, it is the first time that the peakon problem is interpreted in terms of Pfaffians.

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• We present axioms that determine the cup-$i$ products introduced explicitly by Steenrod up to isomorphism, and not just homotopy. As is well known, these products generalize the Alexander-Whitney cup product on cochains and induce the Steenrod squares in cohomology.

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• Given a sequential learning algorithm and a target model, sequential machine teaching aims to find the shortest training sequence to drive the learning algorithm to the target model. We present the first principled way to find such shortest training sequences. Our key insight is to formulate sequential machine teaching as a time-optimal control problem. This allows us to solve sequential teaching by leveraging key theoretical and computational tools developed over the past 60 years in the optimal control community. Specifically, we study the Pontryagin Maximum Principle, which yields a necessary condition for optimality of a training sequence. We present analytic, structural, and numerical implications of this approach on a case study with a least-squares loss function and gradient descent learner. We compute optimal training sequences for this problem, and although the sequences seem circuitous, we find that they can vastly outperform the best available heuristics for generating train

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• This paper considers the consensus performance improvement problem of networked general linear agents subject to external disturbances over Markovian randomly switching communication topologies. The consensus control laws can only use its local output information. Firstly, a class of full-order observer-based control protocols is proposed to solve this problem, which depends solely on the relative outputs of neighbours. Then, to eliminate the redundancy involved in the full-order observer, a class of reduced-order observer-based control protocols is designed. Algorithms to construct both protocols are presented, which guarantee that agents can reach consensus in the asymptotic mean square sense when they are not perturbed by disturbances, and that they have decent $H_{\infty}$ performance and transient performance when the disturbances exist. At the end of this manuscript, numerical simulations which apply both algorithms to four networked Raptor-90 helicopters are performed to verify

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• It is a well-known fact that a stability condition $\phi: Obj^* \mathcal{A} \to \mathcal{I}$ over an abelian length category $\mathcal{A}$ induces a chain of torsion classes $\eta_\phi$ indexed by the totally ordered set $\mathcal{I}$. Inspired by this fact, in this paper we study all chains of torsion classes $\eta$ indexed by a totally ordered set $\mathcal{I}$ in $\mathcal{A}$. Our first theorem says that every chain of torsion classes $\eta$ indexed by $\mathcal{I}$ induces a Harder-Narasimhan filtration to every nonzero object of $\mathcal{A}$. Building on this, we are able to generalise several of the results showed by Rudakov in \cite{Rudakov1997}. Moreover we adapt the definition of slicing introduced by Bridgeland in \cite{Bridgeland2007} and we characterise them in terms of indexed chain of torsion classes. Finally, we follow ideas of Bridgeland to show that all chains of torsion classes of $\mathcal{A}$ indexed by the set $[0,1]$ form a metric space with a natural wall and c

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