A spinning construction for virtual 1-knots and 2-knots, and the fiberwise and welded equivalence of virtual 1-knots. (arXiv:1808.03023v1 [math.GT])

We succeed to generalize spun knots of classical 1-knots to the virtual 1-knot case by using the `spinning construction'. That, is, we prove the following: Let $Q$ be a spun knot of a virtual 1-knot $K$ by our method. The embedding type $Q$ in $S^4$ depends only on $K$. Furthermore we prove the following: The submanifolds, $Q$ and the embedded torus made from $K,$ defined by Satoh's method, in $S^4$ are isotopic. We succeed to generalize the above construction to the virtual 2-knot case. Note that Satoh's method says nothing about the virtual 2-knot case. Rourke's interpretation of Satoh's method is that one puts `fiber-circles' on each point of each virtual 1-knot diagram. If there is no virtual branch point in a virtual 2-knot diagram, our way gives such fiber-circles to each point of the virtual 2-knot diagram. We prove the following: If a virtual 2-knot diagram $\alpha$ has a virtual branch point, $\alpha$ cannot be covered by such fiber-circles. We obtain a new equivalence relatio查看全文

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